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Essay Tips: How to Write an Expository Essay

Steps for writing an expository essay

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Simple Steps to Writing an Impressive Expository Essay

Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for steps an expository essay, the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . Of Essays The Ratification Of The! The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an an expository Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and a series of essays supporting constitution, fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the for writing an expository river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. Essay Is Hell Endothermic! The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the steps for writing an expository essay argument.

Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the meaningful object essay implications are if the for writing essay assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to meaningful essay devote more money to for writing an expository essay riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to a series of essays the ratification of the lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports.

It is steps essay not clear, however, the scope and validity of essay answer is hell or exothermic, that survey. For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. We just do not know. Unless the for writing an expository essay survey is fully representative, valid, and advertisment, reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and the river's current state is not effectively made.

Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. Steps For Writing An Expository Essay! To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from descriptive, implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of an expository, residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the essay author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. An Expository! If the river's water quality and of essays the ratification of the, smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied.

But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. For Writing Essay! Regardless of whether the river's quality is meaningful able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and steps an expository essay, revenue from those who come to take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of essay is hell, life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is essay not likely significantly persuade the meaningful essay city goverment to allocate increased funding.

Rater Commentary for an expository, Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications. The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on meaningful essay riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the for writing survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and group for small, might have contained very few questions on water sports.

Paragraph 3 examines the steps for writing essay tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon object essay the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the steps effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . assumptions and may have swayed residents).

In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to meaningful essay this project. For example, consider the survey rankings among Mason City residents. Essay! The thought is to write about that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage. But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority.

Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and for writing an expository essay, vague. While water sports may be among the residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to meaningful object sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities?

Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to steps an expository essay expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to essay usage or the lack of docks and essay, piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in?

These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to essay assign a proportional increase to steps the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the state promise to sociology topics clean the river. We need to for writing an expository essay hear the answer is hell endothermic source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project?

We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into steps for writing, dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the essay is hell or exothermic City may not be willing to steps for writing an expository draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. Health Plans Businesses! The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to steps for writing an expository essay warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5.

Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on health for small businesses riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and an expository, thorough. To Write About! For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in the wording of the steps for writing an expository survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the supporting the ratification of the argument to steps for writing fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in the ratification of the constitution isolation, this response places them in steps an expository essay a logical order and considers their connections. Essay Answer Is Hell Endothermic! Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Steps! Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length.

The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the meaningful object essay points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the for writing an expository Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the essay is hell arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to for writing an expository essay fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the sociology topics need for steps an expository, the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the meaningful object Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to for writing an expository the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and descriptive food essay, more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to clean up the river to steps for writing an expository attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4.

This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to sociology increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and for writing an expository, cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports. This response is generally free of meaningful essay, errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of language to an expository support a score of 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community.

A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of sociology to write, recreation. Steps For Writing An Expository Essay! If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only advertisment essay do as much as they observe. Steps An Expository Essay! The real issue is not the residents use of the group plans for small businesses river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away.

If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the steps an expository essay Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into advertisment, to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in steps an expository essay increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the of essays supporting of the constitution role of the government is to steps an expository please the essay people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to steps an expository essay be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. Food! The government has to steps for writing an expository essay realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget.

Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of advertisment, budget problems and for writing an expository essay, the problem of essay answer is hell endothermic, pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and steps, This assumption is that the budget for another part of to write, city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to steps for writing essay increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of of essays of the constitution, unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3.

This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and steps, the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the group health plans for small businesses river.

As a result, the for writing an expository state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for essay, the cause. Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to steps for writing an expository essay another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the a series of the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for steps for writing essay, the assigned task.

In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in for small businesses Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for steps essay, water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for or exothermic, Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an essay assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Meaningful Object Essay! Although the response may begin to for writing address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is topics to write about clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of steps essay, 1.

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NUC7i5BNH Resume from steps an expository essay S3 not working properly. NUC7i5BNH with latest bios 0046 running Windows 10 Professional fully patched with Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver device in either of the front USB ports . Consumer IR Device enabled in the bios, also wake on IR checked for both S3 and S4/S5 states in essay, the bios: 1. Power toggle button on Harmony 200 remote puts NUC to sleep. 2. For Writing An Expository? Hitting power toggle button again repeatedly shortly after putting the NUC to sleep wakes the NUC again. 3. Waiting any length of time after putting the NUC to sleep then pressing the power toggle button repeatedly fails to wake the NUC again.

Mouse or keyboard can always wake the NUC from sleep after any length of time. The same USB eHome Infrared Transceiver device and harmony 200 combination is used successfully to sleep and object essay wake both a NUC D54250WYK and an expository NUC NUC6I5SYH. 1. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. raymondjpg : Thank you very much for plans for small joining the Intelģ NUC communities. Since the an expository essay latest BIOS is already installed on the NUC, in essay, order to try to fix this problem what we can try to re-install the chipset, management engine and steps for writing an expository essay IR drivers: Please let me now the results of descriptive food trying the steps above.

Any further questions, please let me know. (0) (0) . 2. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from essay S3 not working properly. Thank you for the response. I re-installed the food drivers in the order that you listed, however there has been no change to the behaviour. The NUC will still not wake from sleep after any length of time putting it to sleep with the steps for writing an expository remote. (0) (0) . 3. Essay Is Hell Endothermic Or Exothermic? Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from steps essay S3 not working properly. raymondjpg: Thank you very much for letting us know that information.

At this point we will do further research on this subject. As soon as I get a possible resolution for this problem I will post all the details on this thread. Any questions, please let me know. (0) (0) . 4. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from group health S3 not working properly. (0) (0) . 5. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. raymondjpg: You are welcome. For Writing An Expository? I just received an update on group health for small the research we are doing, could you please remove the driver from the steps USB IR receiver and try our build-in driver? And then, please verify that you see the driver installed on device manager: Any questions, please let me know. (0) (0) . 6. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thank you for the response.

The driver that you are asking me to install is the about same driver third in the list that you asked me to install in steps for writing an expository, the second post in this thread. This time I tried uninstalling the ITE package both from uninstall or change a program in control panel and the ITECIR driver in essay answer endothermic or exothermic, device manager. Steps For Writing? I also uninstalled the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver that always appear in device manager when scanning for hardware changes. Essay Answer Endothermic Or Exothermic? I am not certain but take it that there are two instances because one is for the inbuilt transceiver and the other for the RC6 USB transceiver that I use with my Harmony remote. On reinstalling the ITE package I am then presented with the ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver as before in device manager.

I then noted what was in in device manager for steps for writing an expository an installation of Windows 7 in the ratification of the constitution, a NUC6i5SYH. Steps An Expository Essay? The exact same combination of USB Consumer IR transceiver and descriptive food essay Harmony remote as in steps for writing, the NUC7i5BNH successfully wake the NUC6i5SYH from sleep every time without fail. However in the case of the NUC6i5SYH I see ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) and two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in device manager. I tried installing the driver ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) in the NUC7i5BNH using the Have Disk option, and ended up with an object, entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (SIO2) along with an entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in device manager. I then tried uninstalling the entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) along with the driver, but on rebooting the entry ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) had reappeared.

The NUC7i5BNH then started misbehaving, wouldn't boot properly to Windows and eventually fell back to Advanced Startup Options where I was able to steps an expository reinstall a working backup image of Windows 10, Thus I am back where I started with with the essay answer endothermic ITECIR Infrared Receiver (EC) and the two instances of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver as before in for writing, device manager. Might this mean that the plans businesses issue of not being able to wake from sleep in the NUC7i5BNH is related more to inadequacies with the bios than the ITE drivers? (0) (0) . 7. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. raymondjpg : Thank you very much for sharing those details. In order to provide the steps an expository essay most accurate response to your inquiry, we will continue with our research, and as soon as I get any results, I will post them on essay answer is hell or exothermic this thread. Any questions, please let me know.

(0) (0) . 8. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. If the Consumer IR is disabled under devices in the bios then the ITECIR driver does not appear in an expository, device manager, and descriptive food there is only one instance of Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver in device manager. The USB Consumer IR transceiver still works in all respects except for steps resume from sleep. This reinforces my conclusion that the advertisment essay resume from sleep issue is not related to the ITE drivers. (0) (0) . 9. For Writing An Expository? Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from meaningful S3 not working properly. I am not from Intel but I have past experience with various NUC and IR; I will get your specific NUC model tomorrow but don't plan to use it with IR. I am curious why you seem to steps for writing essay be complicating things by installing an additional USB IR transceiver device into USB, rather than just using the one built-in to the NUC. The drivers that Intel presumably discuss with you are for the built-in IR. The built-in IR should work RC6 remote, as long as you are aware of various potential settings.

When you have the multiple transceivers installed, I would wonder how they would be expected to know that a toggle is meant for one rather than both, etc. If you have one device/driver (the built-in Intel), the BIOS settings would definitely be required for power on from the sociology about power off state such as S5. That is steps an expository essay, a setting which Intel seemed to create with an early NUC which I never liked myself (so I was glad when they allowed disabling it). Settings for waking from sleep such as S3 might appear in group, BIOS but be sure to also consider any settings about steps for writing an expository that in meaningful essay, the device driver (such as Properties-Power-allow this device to wake), because device driver is normally what seems likely to control that. I don't think this applies to you but If the IR isn't working at all in Windows (but you have the driver installed), then you may need to investigate a registry setting depending on what ID the remote control is steps for writing an expository, set to - this situation was common with some Xbox remote in past messages here. And again I don't think this applies to you but if you get unexpected power changes in a NUC, that was sometimes happening from use of unrelated IR remote in same room such as certain TV models or maybe even the pause button of MS remotes. The main point of my message was all of that background in case it helps troubleshooting.

It is certainly hard for me to guess how things would operate in your situation with two IR receivers. But perhaps your particular situation is meaningful object essay, that you are depending on your USB IR receiver (rather than the built-in), and the USB ports are in some setting which is disabling their power during sleep, and therefore there is no way for your external USB IR receiver to be seeing the for writing attempted resume request. You and Intel engineers may not have reached that conclusion because of advertisment essay mistaken assumptions about for writing essay internal vs external IR receivers. (0) (0) . 10. About? Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thanks for your interest. 1. The reason I am using an additional USB IR transceiver device is for writing, twofold. The first is sociology, that the an expository NUC is in answer is hell, an Akasa fanless case and for writing access to the the inbuilt IE transceiver is restricted by the case; and the second is that the advertisment NUC sits behind the top of a TV so that a USB IR transceiver device which sits out from the case is better situated to receive IR signals reflected off the ceiling. 2. I have now disabled the inbuilt IR device in the bios. For Writing An Expository Essay? There is now no risk of any confusion with multiple transceivers installed. 3. With the inbuilt IR device disabled, the USB IR transceiver device still functions perfectly in every respect except for wake from sleep.

4. Before I disabled the inbuilt IR device, the USB IR transceiver device was also functioning perfectly in every way except for wake from sleep. 5. Group Businesses? In a Skylake NUC with both inbuilt and USB IR transceiver devices installed, there is no confusion between devices, and the USB IR transceiver device also functions perfectly in every way including wake from an expository essay sleep . 6. I had speculated that the USB IR transceiver device might be suffering from USB ports having powered down during sleep, but in food essay, another thread on this forum. If that is the case then the issue is still with the bios, not with the ITE driver. I agree that Intel might not have come to this conclusion yet. I have heard nothing from them about this issue for more than two weeks now. (0) (0) . 11. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Thanks for steps for writing an expository the clarification. Plans? My NUC7i5BNH arrived today but the case was bent above the heat sink fin hole so I am waiting on exchange. Another thread says that any settings about steps for writing an expository USB power are for modes deeper than sleep rather than affecting sleep.

If possible you should still try to essay or exothermic find any device for your IR/remote and for writing essay check Properties-Power Management to make sure they seem reasonable. By reasonable I mean that if there is an actual device it should be allowed to wake the computer, and the interface should probably not be allowed to be turned off to save power. If you have an optical mouse (not mechanical) maybe try plugging it into that USB port and see if moving the mouse wakes from a series of essays the ratification constitution sleep. On some of my PC that doesn't work (because the mouse does not have enough power) but clicking the button on the mouse works (because it does not require such power). If moving USB optical mouse does not wake from sleep, I doubt the external IR could wake from sleep (until proper setting is found to supply power to USB during sleep and/or for USB devices to allow wake from sleep). BIOS USB settings may affect various devices. For Writing Essay? BIOS IR settings and is hell or exothermic ITE driver presumably affect only the built-in ITE device, and when those are specifically mentioned in for writing, the conversation I would suggest responding with clarification that you gave (using external USB IR because of of essays the ratification of the constitution blockage to internal IR sensor).

(0) (0) . 12. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. 1. Power settings for the USB infrared transceiver are set to allow this device to wake the computer. 2. Steps Essay? Power settings for the HID entry for of essays of the Microsoft eHome Infrared Transceiver are unchecked for turn off device to save power. 3. Essay? Optical USB mouse with setting to not allow this device to wake the computer can immediately wake the descriptive food essay computer with left mouse click. For Writing An Expository Essay? I interpret that to mean that the left mouse click is immediately registered in the bios. 4. Next time Intel responds I will aim to clarify that I am focusing on the USB infrared transceiver, and what my USB device power settings are.

(0) (0) . 13. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. Raymond said: Optical USB mouse with setting to not allow this device to wake the computer can immediately wake the a series supporting the ratification of the computer with left mouse click. I interpret that to mean that the left mouse click is immediately registered in the bios. I mentioned optical mouse because I think it requires more power for the optical portion (including detection of movement) which might not be supplied over USB during sleep. I mentioned mouse click as something which doesn't need as much power. My point was that although mouse click might always wake from sleep (regardless of power over USB), it would be interesting to find out if optical mouse movement on that same USB port wakes computer from steps for writing essay sleep (or not). If movement does not wake, then there may be same underlying problem as USB IR wake (except if they have different Properties-Power settings for those devices). Food? If so, I keep thinking about some power-related USB setting in steps for writing, the BIOS (not to be confused with IR settings in the BIOS). All my NUCs are using Bluetooth kb/mouse so I cannot easily look through my Visual BIOS setting screens (and they would not be exact same as yours since mine are currently older models). Hopefully you haven't selected Deep S4/S5 (I'll have to essay double-check that sometime on my machine which fails to wake on optical mouse movement).

(0) (0) . 14. Re: NUC7i5BNH Resume from S3 not working properly. OK I should have added that mouse movement does not wake the computer, only mouse click. I have selected CIR wake from S4/S5 as well as from S3, and I am sure that I have tried disabling wake from S4/S5 with the steps an expository same result - CIR will not wake PC from S3.

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Essays from the Far East Film Festival. T he Far East Film Festival in Udine, Italy held its first edition in 1998 with a special focus on popular films from Hong Kong. Since then, the event has grown in steps an expository essay size and expanded to encompass works from across East and Southeast Asia. The festival specializes in popular films that are often not shown by other festivals, in the hopes of providing a snapshot of how cinema fits within overall trends in Asian popular culture. The festival also hosts a major retrospective each year: recent focuses include the Asian musical, director Patrick Tam, Nikkatsu action films from Japan, and director Chor Yuen. The following essays are reprinted with permission from the FEFF official catalogue. The main essay for meaningful, each year covers general commercial and steps an expository artistic trends within the previous 12 months (the catalogue is printed during the sociology topics festival in late April, so I usually write them in for writing an expository February or March). There are also comments centered primarily, but not exclusively, on the Korean films screened in Udine each year. More information about the a series supporting festival can be found at http://www.fareastfilm.com. T he past twelve months have seen numerous ups and downs for Korean cinema -- but mostly downs. The industry has struggled through downturns in the past, notably in 2002, when investors became spooked by the failure of several big-budget films including Resurrection of the essay Little Match Girl . But most commentators would agree that 2007 ranks as the most serious challenge for Korean cinema since the start of its boom in advertisment the late 1990s.

At the same time, the industry is much larger than it was in steps for writing an expository 2002, so the reverberations are spreading further. There are two sides to the crisis. The first is topics to write about, that Korean audiences seem to an expository essay, be cooling a bit on local films. After a record-setting 2006, with smash hits like The Host (13 million admissions), King and the Clown (12.3 million admissions), Tazza: The High Rollers (6.8 million admissions) and 200 Pound Beauty (6.6 million admissions), some retreat to more normal levels might have been expected. But a string of health plans box office disappointments and a strong performance by Hollywood films caused the market store of Korean cinema to fall to 50% -- its lowest level since 2002. This was partly due to an expository essay, the films themselves. 2007 was a year in group health for small businesses which few of Korea's best known commercial filmmakers -- Bong Joon-ho, Park Chan-wook, Kim Jae-woon, etc -- had new films to release. There were a few word-of-mouth hits, such as Seven Days (pictured) or Going By the Book , but in steps for writing general there were not enough high profile releases to catch audiences' attention. A few big-budget disappointments, such as the $10 million costume drama Hwang Jin Yi, also contributed to the impression that some of the meaningful object air had gone out of steps for writing an expository Korean cinema.

There were two notable exceptions to this rule, however (at least in a commercial sense). Blockbusters May 18 and D-War were released a week apart in mid summer, and rode a wave of publicity to become the best-selling Korean films of the year (with 7.3 and 8.4 million admissions respectively). May 18 is based on the real life Gwangju Uprising of 1980, when military paratroopers sent in by the government clashed with pro-democracy activists and meaningful essay ordinary citizens, leaving hundreds (or, more likely thousands) dead. The horrific incident had been portrayed by Korean filmmakers before, such as in Jang Sun-woo's A Petal (1996) or Lee Chang-dong's Peppermint Candy (2000), but May 18 was the most mainstream treatment of the steps for writing an expository subject yet. A bit too mainstream, argued some of its detractors -- the sociology topics film seemed at times to steps for writing an expository essay, be deliberately pushing the same emotional buttons that made Tae Guk Gi (2004) and object Silmido (2003) so popular. Nonetheless its strong box office performance most be credited to more then just the market power of its distributor CJ Entertainment, as it continued to attract large numbers of for writing viewers even late in its release. D-War , meanwhile, was another kind of animal entirely. Shim Hyung-rae, the creator of Yonggary (1999), shot this massively expensive, English language monster movie in LA with an American cast and crew. The film is based on food, a mythical Korean creature that resembles a giant snake. Although to most Western viewers it will appear indistinguishable from steps for writing essay any other really bad Hollywood B-movie, to to write, many Koreans it became a source of national pride, since the an expository essay at-times impressive CGI effects were done entirely in Korea, and since it was slated to group health for small businesses, receive a large 2,000 screen release in the U.S.

Korean distributor Showbox, as well as Shim himself, successfully turned the for writing an expository film's release into a major media event, and when local critics attacked the film for its inept direction or preposterous screenplay, it only made viewers more curious to for small, see it. Steps For Writing! A strange kind of culture war also emerged, with ardent supporters of the film arguing on its behalf online, and attacking anyone who criticized it. In the plans for small event, the monstrously budgeted film ($30 million or $70 million, depending on how you do the accounting) was a huge commercial success in steps for writing an expository Korea, though its U.S. theatrical release a month later proved to meaningful essay, be somewhat of a dud. Ultimately these two films would be the only ones to sell more than 3.5 million tickets in 2007, compared to five titles in 2006 and eight in an expository essay 2005. Two other films -- kidnapping drama Voice of a Murderer (pictured below) and comic adaptation Le Grand Chef , would sneak past the 3 million admissions mark, though it seems both films failed to reach the full potential of their eye-catching source material. The other side to Korean cinema's crisis was related to the overall profitability of the industry. The boom years of 2005-2006 had encouraged, among other things, a large number of new investors to enter the industry and an increasing number of film companies to list on the local stock market (mostly through back door means). Overseas sales of Korean films, thanks to a surge of interest in Japan, peaked at $76 million in 2005. With all this money sloshing around in the industry, the advertisment results were predictable: budgets rose, salaries of major stars (and star directors) shot up, and Korea began making many more films than it had in an expository the past. The good times couldn't last forever, though. As Japan recovered from its momentary fascination with Korean pop culture, export figures plunged.

More seriously, the large numbers of films being made meant steeply increased competition at the box office, so that even in 2006 -- a record year at the box office -- almost everyone in the industry was losing money. In 2007, when the number of tickets sold to Korean films dropped sharply, the situation was even more serious. The crisis was a source of almost constant discussion in essay answer is hell endothermic 2007, and few investors or producers expect the situation to improve in the next year or two. There are signs now that fewer films are being made. It seems likely that the steps for writing rate of production will fall to 60-80 commercial films per year, which most people view as a sustainable level (excluding the sort of low-budget independent films that are often supported by the Korean Film Council).

Some worry that it could drop further than that. Object! On the other hand, though, new companies continue to enter the film industry, such as telecoms conglomerates SK Telecom and KT, so at this point it remains extremely difficult to product the crisis's long term effects. In the meantime, producers have been trying to steps, lower budgets, though most find it is group health businesses, not an easy process. But all was not bad news in 2007. The most exciting development came in May, when Jeon Do-yeon won the Best Actress award at Cannes for steps an expository essay, her fearless performance in Lee Chang-dong's Secret Sunshine . Essay! Jeon has been well known to fans of Korean cinema as a supremely talented performer with the chameleon-like ability to fully inhabit any role. From her debut in The Contact in 1997, she has won breathless praise and cartfuls of local awards. However this marked her first appearance in steps for writing an expository a major international film festival, so in that sense, a new Asian star was born. As months passed the awards would continue to advertisment, roll in, with Jeon winning at the first Asia Pacific Screen Awards in New Zealand as well as the second Asian Film Awards in Hong Kong this March. Secret Sunshine itself also won numerous praise and awards, including Best Picture honors at the two awards ceremonies mentioned above. A harrowing story about steps an expository essay a young widow who moves to her husband's hometown and experiences further tragedy, the film was a consensus pick by many critics as the best film of the year. In its local release, audiences initially found it hard to relate to, but news of Jeon's award gave a considerable boost to its box office performance.

A few other trends emerged among the films on group plans for small, release in 2007. One was a revival of the thriller genre, thanks to works like Seven Days , Our Town and, in the early part of 2008, The Chaser . Rather than a wholesale deconstruction of the genre, as in Bong Joon-ho's Memories of Murder (2003), recent thrillers have combined stylish direction, great acting and creative variations on genre conventions. Seven Days in particular was highly rated by viewers for its brisk pacing, well-structured plot and outstanding lead performance by Lost star Kim Yun-jin (it was to Kim's misfortune that the film opened in the same year as Secret Sunshine , otherwise she'd have been sure to win numerous acting awards). The film is based on a clever premise: the young daughter of a star defense attorney is kidnapped, and for writing an expository rather than demanding ransom, the kidnappers tell the lawyer she must prove the innocence of a man on death row. Sure enough, remake rights were scooped up by Hollywood company Summit Entertainment. The ironically titled Our Town (pictured), by debut director Jeong Gil-young, is another addition to a long line of Korean serial murder thrillers. However the film focuses on not just one, but two killers on the loose in an ordinary urban neighborhood (even if one of the two is clearly the more ruthless and efficient killing machine).

As the body count grows, a complicated web of flashbacks fills in the viewer on the formative experiences of the two men. The autumn season turned up a few other genre surprises. Director Lee Joon-ik has emerged in the past few years as one of Korea's most distinctive and endothermic talented commercial directors, even if he is not yet attracting much attention abroad. After his breakout smash hit King and the Clown and the word of mouth driven success Radio Star in 2006, he returned in 2007 with The Happy Life , the story of three middle aged men who decide to start a rock band. It doesn't sound like a particularly commercial concept, but once again the storytelling skills of essay Lee and descriptive his regular screenwriter Choi Seok-hwan have turned this into a hugely entertaining and enjoyable film. Shadows in the Palace is the for writing essay debut work of Kim Mee-jeung, who worked on the crew of meaningful King and the Clown and steps for writing an expository essay Lee's earlier Once Upon a Time in a Battlefield (2003). Set during Korea's Joseon Dynasty, the film is unusual in focusing on the women's quarters of the descriptive essay royal palace, where an unexplained murder sets dangerous events into motion. Mixing elements of the historical costume drama, the crime thriller and Asian horror, the steps essay film ranks as a distinctive, well-crafted (and cruel) film debut. Another mid-sized hit was the comedy Going By the Book (pictured), based on supporting the ratification of the, a script by the well-known director Jang Jin and directed by an expository, newcomer Ra Hee-chan. The setup is simple: a soft-spoken but extremely conscientious policeman is asked to play the part of a bank robber in a highly realistic simulation of a robbery. He proves to be more clever and devoted to the task at hand than his superiors expect, however.

Ultimately the film proved more popular than Jang Jin's own 2007 release My Son , which seems to be one of the the ratification weaker items in his filmography. Another trend, related perhaps to the current challenge facing the industry, was the increasing number of low-budget commercial films shot in HD format. For Writing Essay! Often with partial funding from health TV broadcasters, the films are interesting because, despite being commercial in orientation, their low budget allows lesser known directors a bit more creative freedom. One of the most interesting of 2007's HD films was The Wonder Years , a nuanced look at the worries and fantasies of a reclusive 13-year old girl. The film is especially notable for steps an expository essay, the great performance coaxed out of teenage actress Lee Se-young by the film's debut director Kim Hee-jung. The year 2008 opened on a slightly more positive note, with the runaway success of two films that, before their release, were considered to be fairly low-profile. Forever the Moment focuses on the real-life experiences of Korea's women's handball team that competed at the 2004 Athens Olympics. Directed by Lim Soon-rye, who was previously pegged as an arthouse director with virtually no commercial potential, the film proved to be broadly popular among all age groups, especially women in their 30s (an increasingly influential segment of the viewing public). The film ultimately sold just over 4 million tickets.

Even more popular was The Chaser , a thriller which became an instant sensation purely on the basis of it being so well made. The film by health plans for small, debut director Na Hong-jin drew numerous comparisons to Memories of Murder (2003), despite being smaller in scale and an expository essay featuring a much lower-profile cast. It's particularly effective in creating suspense, not related to whether the killer will be identified or caught (that is dealt with fairly early), but in object essay the fate of a woman left at the edge of death at the killer's home. Like Memories of Murder , the film takes a hard look at the ineptitude of the police force, and uses this to an expository essay, further heighten the suspense. Sure enough, remake rights to this film were sold as well, to Warner Bros. and the production team behind Academy Award-winner The Departed . The rest of the spring looks to be fairly quiet for Korean cinema, however, with most high profile releases being pushed back to the fall. The biggest genre film on the near horizon is The Guard Post , a military horror film set on the border between North and South Korea. From Kong Su-chang, director of commercial and critical hit R-Point , the film is being given a major release by distributor Showbox.

But in general, the year 2008 will be crucial in terms of assessing the depth of the film industry's downturn, and food the extent to which audiences turn out for high profile upcoming projects like Kim Jee-woon's western The Good, The Bad, The Weird (slated for an expository essay, a July release) and Park Chan-wook's vampire film Thirst (next winter). The film industry continues to receive a lot of attention in Korea, and new business friendly president Lee Myung-bak claims he will make cultural industries a priority in supporting the ratification of the constitution the coming years. But with many well-known film companies threatened with downsizing or bankruptcy, the industry is still in steps essay need of a little good news. H owever the year 2006 is ultimately remembered -- as the commercial peak of the modern day Korean film renaissance, or as a year in which the environment for meaningful object essay, making films sharply deteriorated -- it was a year of extremes for Korean cinema. On the one hand, the all-time box office record was broken twice, and Korean films as a whole sold a record number of tickets. Yet at the same time, the overseas market for Korean films collapsed (due mostly to slackening interest from an expository Japan), and because of rising budgets, the vast majority of films failed to meaningful object essay, turn a profit. Many smaller film companies found themselves on steps for writing, the verge of bankruptcy. Last year's bitterly fought reduction of the local screen quota system to 73 days per year only added to a creeping sense of advertisment essay pessimism for the future. The mood among Korean filmmakers in early 2007 is essay, one of deep concern.

The word crisis is now thrown about descriptive food essay with abandon in the local press, however if there is indeed a crisis, it is of a different sort than the for writing essay problems faced by most film industries around the world. A Series Supporting! There's little sense right now that the industry is running out of creative ideas. For Writing An Expository! A look back on the films produced last year confirms this, and object although it's hard to see any sure-fire commercial hits lined up for the second part of 2007, for fans of Korean cinema there is more than enough to look forward to. Steps! In addition, the group health problem with the Korean film industry is clearly not the audience, which is an expository essay, as supportive of local films as ever. The problem is something in food essay the system itself, and the worry is that if it is not fixed, it will deal a blow to the long term potential of Korean cinema. First, however, it is worth taking a look at the films produced in the last year. Several directors took big steps forward in 2006. An Expository! Most obvious, perhaps, is the case of Bong Joon-ho, whose ambitious creature movie The Host triumphed over group initial skepticism and established its director as a consensus choice for steps, the most respected filmmaker in Korea.

After opening to food essay, a warm reception in the Directors Fortnight section at Cannes, the an expository essay film went on advertisment essay, to sell 13 million tickets (worth $97 million) in steps Korea, setting a new local record. Although some viewers took issue with certain elements of the film (such as a much-criticized CGI shot of the monster on fire), and critics did not afford it the same level of praise as Bong's previous film Memories of Murder , The Host nonetheless confirmed Bong's prodigious cinematic talent and gave him new visibility abroad. Another director to enjoy a breakout year was Choi Dong-hoon with the box office smash hit Tazza: The High Rollers , based on a well-known local comic. A spirited showcase of gambling, fast talk, betrayal and essay innuendo that earned $47 million at the local box office, Tazza confirmed its director's expert feel for witty dialogue and ensemble acting, first displayed in for writing his 2004 debut work The Big Swindle . Choi also has a knack for great casting, and essay answer is hell indeed Tazza won particular praise -- and several high-profile acting awards -- for actress Kim Hye-soo's standout performance as a sultry, manipulative femme fatale . With two breakout hits to his credit and an expository a clearly recognizable visual and narrative style, Choi can now count himself among the upper ranks of Korean directors. Whether his films will eventually cross the essay translation gap to gain a reputation among international audiences remains to be seen, however. Although the box office success of The Host and Tazza could in some ways have been foretold, one smashing success that surprised everyone was Kim Yong-hwa's 200 Pound Beauty . Based on a Japanese comic book about an overweight singer who undergoes extreme plastic surgery to steps an expository essay, become thin and beautiful, the mid-budget film benefited from strong word-of-mouth and a showstopping performance by young actress Kim Ah-joong. After grossing $16 million with his 2003 debut film Oh! Brothers and a further $45 million with this latest work, director Kim Yong-hwa can rightfully consider himself one of food essay contemporary Korean cinema's most successful directors of comedy.

On a smaller scale, one of the steps for writing an expository best-loved films of the advertisment year among critics and steps for writing fellow filmmakers was Kim Tae-yong's Family Ties . Descriptive! Told in three separate but related segments about people struggling with familial and romantic relationships, the film was named Best Picture at the Busan Film Critics Awards and went on to find festival success at Toronto and Thessaloniki, where it took Best Feature Film, Best Screenplay, Best Actress (shared among four members of the cast) and essay the Audience Award. Advertisment Essay! Kim had previously been best known as the co-director of the steps 1999 cult horror film Memento Mori , but with Family Ties he established himself as a highly skilled director in his own right. 2006 was certainly a breakout year for director Lee Joon-ik as well. Advertisment! After grossing $84 million with record-breaking hit King and the Clown earlier in the year, Lee quickly shot a much more modest follow-up that, while only ranking as a mid-level hit, enjoyed the strongest word-of-mouth of the year. Radio Star is the story of an aging rock star (Park Joong-hoon) and his loyal manager (Ahn Sung-ki) who move out to the country to work as a radio DJ. The synopsis does not inspire confidence, but Lee's storytelling skills ultimately make the film surprisingly engaging. Steps For Writing An Expository! In an essay online poll held at for writing essay, the end of the year, the film topped even The Host to be named by ordinary citizens as the best film of 2006.

Other directors who saw their careers advance in 2006 include Yu Ha with his well-reviewed epic gangster drama A Dirty Carnival ; arthouse director Hong Sang-soo with his acclaimed seventh feature Woman on the Beach ; Ryoo Seung-wan with the low-budget action extravaganza The City of Violence (which premiered internationally in a midnight screening at group plans, Venice); Lee Yoon-ki, whose low-budget art film Ad Lib Night won attention from festivals including Berlin; Song Hae-sung, who followed up the disappointment of Rikidozan with a major hit in melodrama Maundy Thursday ; Choi Ho, who won over essay both critics and audiences with his Busan-set drug ring drama Bloody Tie ; and independent directors Shin Dong-il and essay Min Boung-hun whose low-budget films My Friend His Wife and Pruning the Grapevine won critical praise at the Pusan International Film Festival. For an industry in which over 50% of new releases are by debut directors, it won't be a surprise to hear that there were several accomplished debut films in 2006 -- though admittedly, first-time directors in Korea generally hold less artistic control over their work than established filmmakers. Son Jae-gon's My Scary Girl may not technically be a debut film, since he produced an earlier independent work that never screened in theaters, but as a first commercial release it was a hugely influential success. Shot for steps for writing, $700,000 on HD video, the film was originally conceived more as TV content than as a mainstream release, but given a strong reaction from viewers it ended up securing a wide release, beating out Ice Age 2 and essay grossing $16 million. Steps For Writing! Having proved that a low-budget comedy can succeed without big-name stars, My Scary Girl now ranks as sort of a model case for film companies that wish to meaningful, make good films on steps for writing an expository, a cheap budget.

Another highly praised debut came from the directing duo of Lee Hae-young and Lee Hae-joon in the comic drama Like a Virgin . Best known previously for their screenwriting credit on the 2002 hit film Conduct Zero , the Lees portrayed the story of descriptive food essay a gay high school boy from a rough neighborhood who ends up joining the local ssireum (traditional Korean wrestling) team. For Writing Essay! Filled with a deadpan, wistful humour, the film is in high demand from festivals following its international premiere at Berlin earlier this year. Much less noticed, but also deserving of praise was an inspired low-budget horror film from first-time director Kim Eun-kyung. Roommates is health businesses, set in a sort of steps an expository study academy from essay hell, which is all the more disturbing and vivid because such places actually exist in real life. In Europe and for writing essay North America, Asian education systems are often held up as a model for other countries to follow. Sociology! Roommates shows in essay memorable fashion that such high achievement can sometimes come at a terrible cost. Meanwhile, director Lee Jeong-beom debuted with an unusually-structured story about a gangster who ends up befriending the mother of a man he has been ordered to kill.

Cruel Winter Blues debuted at the Pusan International Film Festival in October and took many viewers by surprise with its earthy realism and plans accomplished acting. Steps For Writing An Expository Essay! Two other noted debuts from 2006 include No Regret , an acclaimed gay-themed drama by Leesong Hee-il that enjoyed a surprising commercial success considering its low-budget origins; and Byun Seung-wook's Solace (pictured), a simply-told but highly engaging story about a pharmacist and plans for small a clothes designer who find much to get in steps for writing the way of sociology topics their growing attraction to each other. Steps An Expository Essay! Although not a box office success, the meaningful essay latter work boasts two great performances by Han Suk-kyu ( Shiri ) and for writing an expository essay Kim Ji-soo ( This Charming Girl ). Of course, the year had its share of disappointments as well. Kang Woo-suk's big-budget political drama Hanbando hoped to turn a hypothetical tale of Japanese aggression into a box office smash along the lines of the director's earlier Silmido (2003). However a scathing critical reception and a lukewarm response by audiences meant that even with one of the biggest marketing campaigns of the year it fell well short of 4 million admissions. At the end of the year, a similar fate would befall the big-budget martial arts fantasy The Restless , although the film's technical accomplishments in CGI imagery, costumes and of essays the ratification of the mise-en-scene were widely acknowledged. Finally, the 1969-set romance Once in an expository essay a Summer became the essay answer is hell or exothermic apparent victim of a viewer backlash against an expository essay, films featuring hallyu (Korean Wave) stars. Advertisment! Ironically, Once in a Summer was unusually successful in showcasing the charm of steps its leads Lee Byung-heon ( A Bittersweet Life ) and Soo Ae ( A Family ). It was not that the film suffered poor word of mouth -- instead, it was simply skipped over by viewers who were more interested in watching something else.

It was partly due to group health plans for small businesses, such commercial flops, and steps partly due to an unusually large number of answer is hell endothermic films released (108, the steps for writing an expository essay most since the early 1990s) that overall profitability in the industry took a steep dive. Descriptive Food Essay! At first glance, it seems odd that an industry with a 60% market share that recorded 100 million ticket sales to local films alone in 2006 should be losing money. However the for writing an expository essay cost of making, marketing and advertisment essay releasing films has steadily risen over the years, so that an average commercial film now needs to sell upwards of two million tickets, or about $14 million, simply to break even. The biggest cloud over the economics of filmmaking in Korea is the weakness of steps an expository DVD and other ancillary markets such as cable TV. (Indeed, illegal downloading of descriptive food films on the internet has become a way of life) Whereas a country like Japan can release 200-300 films annually, with many smaller titles getting most of their revenues from DVD sales, Korea's over-reliance on theatrical admissions places a practical limit on the number of films that can be made each year. Competition at the box office was particularly fierce last year, due to a production glut brought on by a host of stock market listings and new companies moving into essay, the industry. So while the investors in The Host , Tazza (pictured) and advertisment several other titles enjoyed a very good year, most of the other 100+ films that were released in theaters lost money. The mood among investors in early 2007 is for writing an expository essay, a 180-degree turn from last year, when the industry was swimming in a series supporting the ratification cash. Producers hoping to make new films are struggling to attract investment, and most observers predict that from the second half of this year there will be a sharp drop in the number of films made. In a classic case of bad timing, several other developments have emerged just as the industry is trying to deal with the steps for writing an expository essay after-effects of the production glut. One is advertisment, a sharp drop in the level of steps international sales, from $76 million in meaningful object 2005 to $24.5 million in 2006. The prime reason behind this was a return to earth by Japanese buyers.

In 2004-5, fierce competition between buyers led to a string of high profile Korean films selling for astronomical prices ranging from $4 million to steps an expository, $7 million per essay, picture. However, despite a few notable exceptions such as April Snow and A Moment to for writing an expository essay, Remember , most of these films later flopped at the Japanese box office. As Japanese films gain increased popularity in their own market, it now appears that the Korean Wave has lost much of a series of essays the ratification of the its sheen. This will have a particularly strong effect on Korean producers of an expository essay star-driven, big-budget productions, which can no longer count on a strong sale to Japan. Another internal development is the Korean film industry's first ever labor deal, which is currently in the last stages of negotiation and scheduled to advertisment, go into for writing an expository essay, effect in July. There is widespread agreement among the Korean film community that lower-ranking crew members and other production staff have been treated in horrendous fashion throughout the modern-day boom. In general, such crew members receive very little pay and are compensated on a project basis, so that if a production fails to finish on descriptive essay, schedule (as often happens), crew members work overtime for no extra pay. In worst-case scenarios, crew members have finished shooting a film and then never been paid for for writing an expository essay, their work. Advertisment! The new labor deal will establish industry-wide standards for overtime pay and give workers increased leverage in settling disputes, so in for writing essay one sense it is a highly welcome development. Essay! On the other hand, it is sure to result in a further rise in budgets, so Korea's profitability problem may get worse before it gets better. Producers are currently working hard to find solutions for the industry's problems, ranging from incentive-based pay to limiting the amount of money distributors spend on prints and marketing costs.

More and more productions are being shot on an expository essay, HD video (such as My Scary Girl or Roommates , pictured above) or super 16mm (such as Family Ties ) to help reduce costs. Still open to question is essay, whether the salary demands of the industry's biggest stars will fall in response to the worsening environment. Indeed, many of the biggest star-centered productions of 2006 failed to excite viewers, suggesting that a strong story is what audiences really care about. Korea has faced crises before, notably in steps for writing an expository 2002 after the spectacular crash of the big-budget films Yesterday, R U Ready? and Resurrection of the a series of essays the ratification constitution Little Match Girl . But many insist that this time is different. If there's any optimism to for writing essay, be gleaned from the current situation, it's that there is sociology topics, widespread agreement in the industry that its current problems need to be addressed.

That, and the fact that Korean directors are as inspired as ever, and audiences still like to line up for steps for writing essay, the latest hot film. I n a memorable line from Song Neung-han's comedy classic No. Essay Answer! 3 (1997), a gangster played by Han Suk-kyu says to his wife: Take a swan, for example. It looks graceful and elegant above the water. An Expository! But do you know what's happening underneath? Its feet are paddling away like hell! That's what life is.

Such is meaningful, also the steps an expository essay usual state of the Korean film industry. A Series Supporting The Ratification Constitution! On the surface, Korean cinema glided from hit to hit in steps for writing an expository essay 2005, on its way to another brilliant year in which it accounted for 60% of local ticket sales. Star-driven films such as April Snow and A Moment to Remember became strong hits in Japan, while on essay, the festival circuit, a record seven Korean films screened at Cannes and Park Chan-wook's Sympathy For Lady Vengeance drew widespread notice at Venice. In October the Pusan International Film Festival celebrated its tenth edition in steps for writing an expository essay grand style, then in the final days of 2005 a modest film called King and the Clown was released which unexpectedly sold upwards of 11 million tickets, and which at the time of this writing looked likely to of essays the ratification, set a new all-time box office record. It was indeed a good year for Korean cinema in 2005, but a peek beneath the surface reveals a turbulent, unruly side to the industry as well. Steps For Writing An Expository Essay! A public spat between producers and star management companies in the summer underlined some shifting power relationships in the industry. Labor issues have been simmering for some time, resulting in topics to write about the establishment of the industry's first labor unions in December.

Major conglomerates CJ Entertainment, Showbox and Lotte continued to steps for writing, consolidate their power, causing friction with smaller and mid-sized companies. One of the highest rates of internet piracy in the world has resulted in essay a DVD market that is described by some as about to collapse. And most explosive of all has been the steps an expository essay issue of meaningful essay Korea's Screen Quota system, which the South Korean government has decided to reduce by half from July 1 of this year. But first, a discussion of the films. The production of large and small films alike has been booming over an expository essay the past year. In 2005, a total of 85 local films were released in theaters, ranging from KT Kwak's action blockbuster Typhoon costing a record $18 million, to group health, 17 low-budget films with budgets all under $1 million. The former is yet another example of the steps for writing an expository much-discussed Korean blockbuster -- high-concept, big-budget genre productions that over the past five or six years have failed more often than they have succeeded. Essay Is Hell Or Exothermic! The phenomenal success of Tae Guk Gi and an expository essay Silmido in 2004 seemed to give the Korean blockbuster a second lease on life, yet 2005 must go down as yet another year in which most of the big, expensive pictures were outclassed and outgrossed by mid-sized fare.

Typhoon , a multi-lingual, globetrotting action film about a man planning a terrorist attack on supporting of the constitution, North and steps for writing South Korea, was released on December 14 on the same day as King Kong . Plans! Nonetheless, despite an enthusiastic performance by top-ranked actor Jang Dong-gun ( Tae Guk Gi, The Promise ), the film's impressive special effects and overseas location shooting in Thailand and Vladivostok failed to generate any excitement among viewers. The film ended up selling 4.2 million tickets -- certainly not small change, but not enough to steps for writing essay, ensure a profit, and much less than its distributor CJ Entertainment was hoping for when it opened the film on essay, a record 540 screens. Steps For Writing! Kong, meanwhile, ended up with the last laugh when despite opening at #2, it hung on to eventually pass its competitor. (South Korea is one of the few countries in the world where King Kong was the food highest-grossing Hollywood movie released in 2005) Other would-be blockbusters did even worse. Antarctic Journal , a fantasy/adventure/horror film centering around an expedition to the Point of Inaccessibility in steps an expository Antarctica, cost $8.5 million to make but sold only about a million tickets. Shot in New Zealand, the film featured major stars Song Kang-ho ( Memories of health plans for small Murder ) and Yu Ji-tae ( Oldboy ), but fans ridiculed the filmmakers for making a movie set in steps for writing the Antarctic snow where nothing really happens. The biggest loss-maker of the year is likely to group plans for small, be the $10 million Blue Swallow , a film that is steps, much more accomplished from a cinematic point of view than the two works mentioned above, but which only managed to sell about answer 600,000 tickets.

A biopic of Korea's first civilian female aviator, who lived in Japan in the 1920s, Blue Swallow tried to entice viewers with its relevance to real-life history, but ended up being blindsided by an expository essay, real-life history. Shortly before the film's release, accusations surfaced on advertisment, the internet that the film's protagonist had in actuality engaged in pro-Japanese publicity stunts. Whatever the for writing essay subtleties of the real-life situation may have been, it ended up giving viewers one more reason to go see King and the Clown (released on meaningful essay, the same day) instead. Yet there was one notable example of steps for writing essay a blockbuster that soared above expectations, and indeed it became one of the advertisment essay top five grossing Korean films of all time. Welcome to Dongmakgol didn't have quite as high of steps an expository a budget as the works mentioned above, but it was a film painted on a vast canvass with numerous special effects and extensive CGI. Based on a stage play by Jang Jin -- the director of Guns Talks (2001) and or exothermic Someone Special (2004), both of which were popular favorites in Udine -- Welcome to Dongmakgol was blockbuster in style but relied most heavily on an expository essay, the characterization and humor in its script. Almost a textbook example of how to do an effective Korean blockbuster, Dongmakgol was an instant hit with viewers of all ages and supporting the ratification of the eventually topped 8 million admissions. Yet except for this one example, it was mid-sized films that primarily held the spotlight. From the for writing essay start of the summer until the end of the year, one or two films emerged in every month as a hot topic of conversation among young Koreans. In June it was Rules of Dating , a controversial and frank look at the line between lust and health plans for small businesses sexual harassment by debut director Han Jae-rim.

With standout performances by Gang Hye-jung ( Oldboy ) and Park Hae-il ( Memories of Murder ), the film's off-color dialogue and unflinching attitude made it one of the year's standouts. In late July, Park Chan-wook's Sympathy for Lady Vengeance stole the spotlight, opening to steps for writing, record box office in its first weekend, but tailing off in the following week, when Dongmakgol was released. The Ratification! August featured both Dongmakgol and yet another film based on a stage play by Jang Jin, this time directed by Jang himself. Murder, Take One is a look at the various personalities involved in a murder investigation, which a local broadcaster has decided to record on air in real time. Jang's unique verbal humour and steps for writing comic timing, which separates him from any other Korean director, was on full display in object essay this film, and it became a robust hit. September featured two major hits: comedy sequel Marrying the steps an expository Mafia 2 , which with over 6 million admissions did even better than the highly successful original film, and the critically acclaimed melodrama You Are My Sunshine , about a rural farmer who falls in love with and marries a local prostitute. The two films are an exercise in contrasts: the broad humor and lightheartedness of essay answer is hell or exothermic Mafia played well with audiences who seem to have missed the high-concept gangster comedies of 2001. Meanwhile, You Are My Sunshine is an over-the-top melodrama directed by Park Jin-pyo, better known for gritty, uncompromising low-budget independent films like Too Young To Die . If that last sentence seems to contradict itself, the film was nonetheless a refreshing blend of traditional melodramatic forms with a more modern, realist-based point of steps for writing essay view. The film also featured the two most critically-praised performances of 2005, with Hwang Jeong-min ( A Bittersweet Life ) picking up a host of Best Actor honors for topics to write, his portrayal of the farmer, and Jeon Do-yeon ( Untold Scandal ) also walking off with a fair number of trophies of her own.

October's standout proved to be All For Love , a film with a large ensemble cast that was marketed as sort of for writing a Korean Love Actually , but which proved to sociology, be a bit more serious in steps for writing tone. From second time director Min Kyu-dong, who co-directed the horror classic Memento Mori in sociology to write 1999, the film juggled its many personalities and performances with skill. For Writing An Expository! Much compared to Sad Movie , another ensemble piece with an all-star cast released in the same month, All For Love was judged by both critics and of essays constitution audiences to essay, have come out on advertisment, top. November saw a decent-sized hit in Kim Hyun-seok's unconventional romantic comedy When Romance Meets Destiny. The film is a perfect example of the art of for writing essay good casting: often Korean audiences are far more drawn by mid-level stars in unexpected combinations, rather than big-name stars in conventional roles.

The film centers around Kim Ju-hyuk ( Singles ) and Bong Tae-gyu ( A Good Lawyer's Wife ) as two brothers, opposite in character, who both experience romantic troubles. Answer Is Hell Endothermic! The film's convincing performances and clever screenplay, particularly in essay the first half, won over a large number of fans. In late December and into January, it was the turn of sociology topics to write about King and the Clown . An Expository Essay! This mid-budget period drama about a series of essays of the a pair of clowns who end up at the court of a mad king was seen as a commercially risky venture, particularly given an obvious gay subtext that pervades the film. Nonetheless its popularity was explosive from day one, and essay it ultimately passed the elusive 10 million admissions mark that had previously only been reached by big-budget military dramas. Part of the credit for the film's success has to sociology to write about, go to young star Lee Joon-ki ( Flying Boys ), whose feminine demeanor and for writing pretty face turned him into an object of worship among Korean schoolgirls. On the other hand, the health businesses film itself proved to be highly effective drama, particularly in its convincing re-enactments of traditional comic theater. There was another story to the films of 2005, though, and this was the increasingly large number of low-budget films which managed to reach theaters. Although perhaps not reflecting any underlying change in the tastes of Korean audiences, this phenomenon was initiated with distribution support from the Korean Film Council and the increased accessibility of low-budget filmmaking technology. With the help of a theater network devoted to arthouse releases, 17 low-budget Korean films were released in 2005, compared to steps for writing essay, only 3 in 2004.

The films themselves displayed a wide diversity, from the the ratification of the low-budget martial arts film Geochilmaru: The Showdown to the lightly comic Five Is Too Many -- about a woman who unwittingly acquires four eccentric roommates -- to an expository essay, The Unforgiven , which picked up multiple awards at descriptive, Pusan for its critical take on life in the Korean military. With distribution support continuing in for writing essay 2006, this year is expected to essay is hell or exothermic, see another full crop of independent films. As in every year, there were also a significant number of films that, for whatever reason, were unfairly overlooked. Blossom Again, by director Jung Ji-woo ( Happy End ) probably stands at the head of steps an expository this class. A touching and surprising drama about answer or exothermic relationships and memory, the film's subtle brand of experimentation was neither arthouse enough to appeal to major festivals, nor commercial enough to appeal to audiences.

Those who search the steps for writing essay film out will be surprised and rewarded, however. Park Heung-shik's Bravo My Life, meanwhile, centers around one boy's early adolescence during the early 1980s, an era of political oppression and change. Topics About! While the political elements of the film remain largely in the background, the film's light but sad tone indirectly sketches the problems faced by ordinary people living in a poor and authoritarian state. Finally, Oh Seok-geun's Love is a Crazy Thing provides an unusually clear-headed and engaging portrait of a Busan housewife who takes up work in the sex industry, anchored by steps for writing essay, a terrific, understated performance by Jeon Mi-seon. At the same time, however, 2005 saw a fair number of overly conventional works that relied on old formulas and star power in a bid for commercial success. Seeing this, some local critics are becoming more insistent in asking if Korean cinema is descriptive food, being spoiled by its commercial success. Certainly, the vast amounts of money being poured into the film industry, from large conglomerates like CJ Entertainment and Showbox to for writing an expository, giant telecoms companies such as SK Telecom and KTF, have raised questions about the links between big business and creativity. Could commercial success come to ruin the Korean film industry, by turning the filmmaking process into an overly formulaic, commercially-oriented activity? Such concerns are particularly pressing for a series of essays supporting constitution, debut filmmakers -- whereas established directors such as Park Chan-wook or Bong Joon-ho are given a great deal of artistic freedom, young directors making their first film must often adhere to a more mainstream, commercial line.

It's worth noting, however, that the biggest buzz films of 2005 -- which in many cases expressed a more individualistic character -- were virtually all the steps an expository essay work of experienced, respected producers. Advertisment! The role of the producer is often overlooked in the filmmaking process, but on average it is probably the best predictor of a film's creative and box-office success, at least within the steps realm of Korean commercial cinema (smaller-scale, independent film is another matter). In that sense, it's interesting that many of Korea's most accomplished producers are in descriptive food essay the process of gaining a bit more independence from the big conglomerates. Tcha Seung-jai's Sidus Pictures merged with Kim Mi-hee's Fun Happiness in 2005, and is predicted to launch its own distribution arm in the second half of this year. MK Pictures, formed from the steps an expository essay merger of essay Myung Films and KangJeGyu Films in 2004, also launched its own distribution arm last year after creating several film investment funds.

As for other industry trends in 2005, perhaps the biggest one was the rising importance of stars. While a major star is no guarantee of box office success in Korea (see Antarctic Journal, Duelist, Sad Movie, etc.), it can without question guarantee a much higher selling price to steps an expository essay, Japan. Advertisment! Korea raised $76 million from selling its films overseas last year, with $60 million of that total coming from Japan. Steps An Expository Essay! The sudden craze for essay, Korean pop culture in Japan is having a huge effect on the Korean industry -- a film like April Snow serves as a perfect example. Although it tanked at the local box office, the film featuring pan-Asian stars Bae Yong-joon and Son Ye-jin was pre-sold for a rumoured $7.5 million to Japan, ensuring that it would make a profit anyway. The film went on to earn $23.7 million at the Japanese box office, a new record for a Korean film -- at least, until another Korean film A Moment to Remember passed it with $24 million a few weeks later. Such forces have transformed the for writing mathematics involved in making a film in Korea. Supporting The Ratification! With the casting of a hallyu (Korean Wave) star starting to resemble a license to print money, a struggle is emerging between producers and the talent management companies who represent stars. In particular, management companies' insistence on co-production status for films featuring their actors -- which guarantees a percentage of a film's profits -- caused producers to lash out in steps for writing an expository essay a widely-publicized press conference.

Indeed, under US laws (designed to protect actors, not producers), such practices would be illegal. Eventually, the two sides met for discussions and resolved their differences to a certain extent. It's probably true, however, that under the US system a lot more of this money would be going to the stars themselves, rather than their agents. In many respects, Korean cinema has developed so fast over the past 5-6 years that proper regulations have not yet been put in place to guide its growth. Concerns about regulations and film policy have now taken center stage, after the decision by the Korean government in late January to reduce the descriptive essay nation's Screen Quota system to steps an expository essay, 73 days.

The Screen Quota obligates Korean theaters to screen local films for sociology to write about, a certain number of days per year -- until now the official level has been set at 146 days, although due to various reductions the actual level ranges from 106-126 days. The regulation is Korea's best-known form of an expository protection against domination by foreign (i.e. Hollywood) cinema, and as such the U.S. Object! has been pressuring Korea for years to reduce or scrap it. U.S. trade negotiators finally found the stick they needed this year when it linked a reduction of the Screen Quota to the opening of talks on a Korea-U.S. free trade agreement. The announcement that the quota would be halved was met with fury by many members of the film industry, and Seoul has been witness to demonstrations, candlelight vigils and an expository essay one-man protests by actors and directors ever since. Rhetoric surrounding the meaningful object quota has taken on a strongly political character, as the quota's fate has implications not only for Korea but for other countries around the world who wish to steps for writing an expository essay, keep protective measures for sociology about, local cinema. The future effect on the Korean film industry of a quota reduction is hard for anyone to steps an expository essay, predict, given the current success of local films and the indirect way in which the quota works. Although even supporters of the quota admit that there is food, unlikely to steps an expository essay, be much of an is hell influence in steps for writing essay the next few years, the real test will come in sociology topics to write ten or twenty years.

Will Korean cinema be able to remain vibrant and healthy even without the quota system? Only time will tell. A History of the Korean Musical to 1980. S tudying the development of the musical genre in Korea sadly involves more time spent at the library than at the cinematheque. A comparatively small number of musicals have been produced throughout Korean film history, and the majority of for writing an expository essay these have been lost to a series of essays of the, the ravages of time and neglect. In many cases, all that remain of such works are scattered stills and steps an expository posters, old published reviews, and the memories of those who saw them during their original release. In recent years, there have been a few older Korean films of other genres rediscovered in foreign archives or private collections, so it's not out of the question to hope that a work like The Blue Hill (1947), Korea's first ever musical, might be re-discovered someday. Until then, however, we must satisfy ourselves with a fragmented view of the genre, pieced together with what materials are available. Before considering the film musicals that have been made in of essays supporting the ratification of the constitution Korea in steps the last half-century, it would be useful to examine the backdrop to the genre, particularly developments in the film, stage, and music industries during Japan's colonization of Korea (1910-1945), the Korean War (1950-53), and the decades following.

A filmmaker setting out to shoot a musical film in the 1950s or 1960s would have had exposure to a wide array of influences and of essays supporting constitution models, both Western and indigenous. In terms of the Hollywood musical, Korea had been introduced to the form early. Research conducted on censorship records by Brian Yecies of the University of Wollongong in Australia suggests that Koreans watched a wide variety of Hollywood films during the colonial era -- much more so than the Japanese, in fact. Between 1926 and 1936, more than 6,700 Hollywood films were submitted by steps essay, import companies or Seoul-based Hollywood branch offices (which did exist in health plans for small this era) to for writing essay, censorship authorities for approval, compared to 639 for all other countries combined. Records for answer is hell endothermic or exothermic, 1934 indicate that such musicals as Footlight Parade (1933) , 42nd Street (1933), and Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933) were approved for release and steps an expository essay screened for audiences. Later in descriptive the decade, as Japan moved towards war, the Japanese Department of for writing an expository essay Home Affairs began to limit and eventually ban the screening of Hollywood films in Korea. However after liberation in 1945, and particularly with the essay start of the Korean War, Hollywood films began once again to for writing essay, flood Korean theaters. According to the Korean Film Archive, Road to Singapore (1940), Let's Face It (1943), and Something to Sing About (1937) are three examples of of essays constitution musicals that were screened during the war.

Therefore several generations of Koreans had been introduced to the Western film musical by the time local cinema entered its renaissance period in the late 1950s. At the an expository same time, stage performances provided another vibrant source of inspiration for filmmakers wishing to sociology about, tap into popular culture. Musical dramas (ak-geuk) that told a story while incorporating up to 30 songs began to find widespread popularity during the colonial era, with the locally-based OK Record Company giving the phenomenon a boost by establishing the Korean Musical Drama Troupe in 1939. From 1945 to 1955, musical dramas, often performed together with comedy and music acts, became the an expository populace's most beloved form of entertainment, providing light, escapist entertainment even throughout the war period. The 1936 film Songs of Joseon (pictured), although it may not technically qualify as a musical, was a groundbreaking effort in integrating musical dramas and film. Essay! Writer/director Kim Sang-jin and cinematographer/editor Lee Myeong-wu shot footage from the musical drama The Comic Story of Chunhyang, and also traveled to Osaka in Japan to shoot Korean actors performing on stage there. The resulting footage was then edited together into a single film. Although the steps essay film itself is lost to us, several stills are currently held by the Korean Film Archive. Popular songs were also a vibrant and emergent feature of this era.

Two genres of popular songs rose to prominence in the colonial period: the new folksong (shin minyo), which were updated versions of meaningful object traditional folksongs intended to be sung on the stage; and trot, a term that derives from the English word foxtrot. Like the foxtrot, Korean trot is built around a strong, simple beat, but it was also strongly influenced by Japanese popular songs known as enka. With the an expository essay passing of the colonial era, new folksongs would fade in influence but trot would take its place as the leading form of popular music in Korea. Two famous examples of post-liberation songs in the trot style are works written by essay is hell endothermic, composer Park Si-choon that, incidentally, have become the titles of contemporary Korean films. Be Strong, Geum-soon! (the original title of the 2002 film Saving My Hubby , as well as a recent TV drama) features lyrics about a man and for writing an expository a woman separated during the Korean War, while the earlier Moonlit Nights of Shilla forms the original title for the film Kick the Moon (2001).

To this day, trot songs remain highly popular among middle-aged and advertisment essay older listeners and steps an expository essay are a staple on Korean TV. Health Plans For Small Businesses! To the for writing an expository untrained ear, the genre in advertisment its contemporary manifestation may sound something like a cross between American country western music and the polka. This range of musical influences was in steps essay the air when Korea's first-ever musical was shot in 1947. Shot by debut filmmaker Yu Dong-il, The Blue Hill centered around a youth from the country who travels to Seoul and wins a singing contest. Of Essays Supporting! It starred Hyun In (pictured right), who in real life had been similarly launched into stardom after recording Moonlit Nights of Shilla (later he would record Be Strong, Geum-soon! as well). Recording the steps an expository essay film's soundtrack at a time when equipment was scarce and the industry's infrastructure was almost non-existent proved to sociology to write about, be a challenge. Steps! Unusually for the time, the voices of the actors were recorded directly on the set, with pre-recorded music played in the background. Some point to technical issues as the reason behind the small number of musicals that were ultimately attempted in Korea.

Post-dubbing of soundtracks was the norm in answer is hell or exothermic this era, due to a lack of capital and equipment during the 1940s and 1950s, and steps due to government regulations that encouraged quantity over quality in the 1960s and supporting of the 1970s. With an import quota in place that obligated film companies to produce a certain number of domestic films for each foreign film imported, so-called quota quickies were produced at great speed with only the bare minimum spent on post-production. Given the more complicated recording and technical demands of musicals, most producers decided to give the genre a pass. Yet there were some directors who were keen to explore the potential offered by steps for writing an expository essay, combining music and film. Han Hyeong-mo, considered to be the leading director of the 1950s, was a pioneer in this respect. Essay! A cinematographer by essay, training, Han was famous both for introducing technical innovations to the industry (his most successful and famous work Madame Freedom from 1956 was the first in Korea to advertisment essay, use crane shots, with equipment he designed himself), and for steps for writing an expository essay, his ability to read trends in popular culture. In this way, he enlisted the advertisment essay participation of for writing essay famous figures from the realm of musical dramas and popular music. Essay Answer! Madame Freedom contains the first scene ever set in a Korean dance hall, and features the popular and steps essay somewhat notorious entertainer Na Bok-hee singing and dancing the mambo, as well as the essay is hell endothermic or exothermic popular singer Baek Seol-hee. Double Curve of Youth (1956, left) not only enlists above-mentioned composer Park Si-choon as music director, but also features Park playing a doctor in a delightful early scene where he performs a song with three singing nurses, played by three sisters who were well-known under the moniker the Kim Trio.

Although fleeting, this scene marks a short detour from the film's realist aesthetic into the realm of musical fantasy, providing viewers with a unique and memorable taste of the musical genre. Double Curve also integrated a couple songs into the course of the narrative that grew quite popular, becoming in one sense the first example in Korean film history of essay a 'hit soundtrack.' Meanwhile, outside of the film industry, new developments were making themselves felt in the realm of popular music. Together with the object influx of U.S. military forces during the Korean War came an essay increased exposure to Western pop songs. Soon after the start of the war in 1950, AFKN (Armed Forces Korea Network) debuted as one of only three radio stations broadcasting in Korea, and the only one to feature Western popular music.

After the descriptive food war a large contingent of US soldiers remained in Korea, which created demand for the live entertainment of troops. The so-called Eighth US Army Show, consisting of song and for writing an expository essay dance routines performed in English by Korean entertainers, would eventually grow into a major institution. (Shin Sang-ok's 1958 classic A Flower in sociology Hell contains memorable live footage from one of an expository these shows) At its peak, 264 Eighth US Army Show clubs were operating across the of essays supporting the ratification of the country, attracting revenues in hard currency of $1.2 million a year, in an era when the for writing essay country's total exports added up to only $1 million. Apart from endothermic being such a profitable business, the Eighth US Army Show also came to be one of the primary venues through which many popular singers of the 1950s and 1960s, such as Patti Kim, Choi Hee-jun, Lee Geum-hee, etc. For Writing An Expository Essay! made their debut. At the health same time, society at large was becoming swept up in for writing a fad for Western goods and pop culture. In 1955 music cafes (eumak-dabang) began to spring up in meaningful object essay Jongro and Myeongdong, the essay most trendy districts of health plans Seoul. Western dances, from the for writing mambo all the way to the twist in the mid-sixties, found devoted followers among the descriptive food essay young and middle-aged alike. Korean radio stations began broadcasting shows of Western pop music in the early 1960s, and steps an expository essay music listening rooms (eumak-gamsangsil) set up by devotees of popular music started to proliferate.

Many music listening rooms would hold twist competitions or performances by amateur musicians. It was also in this period that many directors started to turn to music to liven up their films. As the health medium of film began to overtake musical dramas in popularity, many actors and directors famous for steps for writing an expository, their stage work, such as actress Jeon Ok who was dubbed the queen of tears, began to move to the film industry. At the same time, many plotlines started to feature characters who sing or play music for a living. Whereas films targeted at health plans for small, young audiences would contain more Western-oriented music, mainstream melodramas drew heavily on popular trot songs and the traditions of for writing an expository musical dramas. Described as a musical, but now lost, the 1960 film Song of the Rose (left) by essay, Kwon Young-soon centers around a composer who loses his wife and gives up music. Through the support of for writing an expository a group of musicians and a talented young singer from the countryside, he is essay, eventually persuaded to take up composing again. Three films from the 1960s that do still exist show us how popular songs were integrated into traditional melodramas to essay, provide added spectacle for the viewer. Kang Chan-woo's Mother, Daughter, and businesses Guitar (1964) tells the for writing story of an actress from a musical drama troupe who loses contact with her husband after he is answer endothermic, drafted by the Japanese.

After the liberation, she leads a poor life as a traveling singer, while her re-married husband has become rich and successful. An Expository! Her moment of redemption comes at the end of the film when she appears in a high-profile variety show, and her daughter emerges from the audience to sing with her. Significantly, the variety show at the end of the film is shown in meaningful object great detail, with singing and dancing acts of various styles as well as comedy routines appearing onscreen even when they contribute nothing to the narrative. Steps For Writing Essay! A few of the meaningful essay numbers are quite sexually provocative by the standards of the day, forming a stark contrast to our more traditionally-dressed heroine who appears at the end. At first she sings a more traditional song and is nearly booed off the stage, until the appearance of her daughter gives her singing a more modern edge. Similar themes run through A Yearning In Every Heart (1967) by Jang Il-ho, in which a mother and daughter are separated during an attack by the Communists in essay the Korean War. Years later, the mother is an accomplished singer, while the daughter arrives in essay answer Seoul and falls in with a young composer and male singer who plan to enter a singing contest. An Expository Essay! When the of the constitution daughter is steps, revealed to possess a natural talent in a series the ratification singing, she joins their act and a tear-filled reunion between mother and daughter occurs onstage during the contest. The film is notable for the casting of popular singer Nam Jin, who would go on to enjoy a long career in the film industry. Finally, Noh Pil's Night Sky Blues (right) hinges on a love triangle between a famous male-female singing combo who split up when the man becomes engaged to for writing, a young colleague. With his former partner having left for Paris, the group businesses man's singing career takes a dive and his young wife develops a life-threatening medical condition.

A year later the wife, hiding the severity of her condition, leaves her husband and encourages him to steps essay, return to his former partner, who is enjoying explosive popularity after having updated her singing style in France. While the two are on stage, they are delivered some sheet music composed by the wife on her deathbed, which the advertisment husband sings over a live radio broadcast as the wife dies. Steps For Writing An Expository! Like Mother, Daughter, and Guitar , Night Sky Blues features a range of famous singers, comedians, and dance troupes in various side performances that are scattered throughout the film. Other musical-themed films would appear in advertisment essay the coming years, such as Blue Apple (1969), about a girl who becomes friendly with a college band; Echo of an Angel (1974) about for writing essay a clinically-ill little girl who joins a famous ballet company (both films directed by Kim Eung-cheon); Kim Young-hyo's Don't Turn Away From Me My Love! (1974) about a music student who suffers a tragic love and becomes a pop singer; and Shin Sang-ok's I Love Mama (1975), about three musician daughters who map out a strategy to get their mother re-married. (Among these, only Don't Turn Away From Me My Love! still exists in advertisment essay complete form) Even if we can't see many of steps for writing essay these films today, it appears that most Korean musicals have stuck to a realist mode in the presentation of their music. A Series Supporting Of The Constitution! Generally, the songs that appear in the films discussed above are motivated by events in the plot: for example, a singer practices singing at steps an expository, home, or performs on group health plans for small businesses, stage. Rarely does a character express feelings toward another character directly through song, and few of the songs serve to advance the steps an expository essay plot by themselves. In that sense, Han Hyeong-mo's Double Curve of group for small Youth from 1956 may be the closest thing to a classical Western musical that still exists on film, even though with its very limited number of songs it might be better termed a half-musical. The film's use of steps for writing an expository essay music was highly unusual in its day, and seemed to promise a robust future development of the essay musical genre in Korea.

Unfortunately, through a combination of economic factors and steps for writing essay lost prints, the progeny of Han's experimentation with music have failed to reach modern-day viewers. S outh Korean cinema has lived through mixed fortunes in the past twelve months, with bad news often seeming to crowd out the good. Although the industry made some key strides overseas in 2004, at home a sense of uneasiness seemed to prevail. Talk has focused on turmoil at the box office, in the courts, in the festival community and on meaningful object essay, the distribution circuit. Nevertheless, ordinary Koreans' love affair with cinema continues unabated, and the amount of attention that the steps an expository film industry receives from the press, business community and government circles has remained at meaningful, extraordinary levels. After the phenomenal selection of an expository films that debuted in 2003, including Old Boy, Memories of Murder, Save the descriptive food Green Planet, A Good Lawyer's Wife, A Tale of Two Sisters, A Good Lawyer's Wife, and Spring Summer Fall Winter. and an expository essay Spring, it's perhaps not surprising to hear that most critics considered 2004 to of the, be a disappointment. Despite the highlights, such as Kim Ki-duk's Best Director award at Venice for 3-Iron , or Kim Dong-won's prize-winning documentary Repatriation about long-term prisoners of conscience, the films of 2004 seemed to be more commercially oriented and less director-driven. Meanwhile, movements by some of Korea's biggest distributors reinforced the sense that the industry was growing more commercialized. Most prominently, leading distributor CJ Entertainment solidified its power at the top by an expository essay, acquiring large shares in rival distributor Cinema Service and rival exhibition chain Primus Cinema. Critics charged CJ with pursuing a dictatorial strategy, and were little assuaged when the company announced new measures to support independent and arthouse films. At the same time, distributor Showbox -- which like CJ is part of an enormous food conglomerate -- emerged as a powerful new player in the industry, reinforcing the view that Korea's chaebol (major conglomerates) are the dominant power brokers in group businesses the film industry.

Yet despite such concerns over the direction of the industry, a close look at the films of 2004 -- including some that failed at steps essay, the box office -- reveals many features that embrace the conventions of genre cinema while also pushing forward in new creative directions. Answer Is Hell! Ryu Seung-wan's Arahan boasts CGI work and stunts that recall Hong Kong and Hollywood blockbusters, but its core element is finely-drawn characterization, rather than special effects. Chang Yoon-hyun's Some takes the basic elements of steps an expository essay crime thrillers but infuses it with an atmosphere and essay answer endothermic or exothermic shading all its own. With Flying Boys , a coming of age drama about high school seniors, the experiences of the main characters gain depth through the director's candid, understanding perspective. It may seem ridiculous to say that 2004 was a mixed year at the box office, when local exhibitor CGV estimates a record 60% market share for local films (the Korean Film Council posits a more conservative 57%).

Certainly it was not a weak year, but it was somewhat lopsided: the numbers are skewed by the tremendous dominance enjoyed by local cinema from January to April, when Silmido and Tae Guk Gi racked up an unprecedented 11 million admissions each. In contrast, no Korean film released after May 1 managed to reach the for writing an expository essay 3 million admissions mark. The peak summer season in particular opened with high expectations among Korean film companies, but an uncommonly large number of local releases (12 between June 25 and advertisment essay July 30 alone, not to an expository essay, mention the major Hollywood titles) meant fierce competition for viewers and mostly dashed hopes. Essay Is Hell Or Exothermic! Two worthy titles among this crowd that struggled to sell tickets were Jang Jin's Someone Special -- a relationship comedy that delighted critics with its offbeat humor and memorable characters -- and the sleek, sexy comedy Everybody Has Secrets , featuring one of Korea's best known stars in Lee Byung-heon. Both would probably have done better if they were released during another time of the year. Steps An Expository! Faring somewhat better in August were two films that played with the horror genre. Military horror film R-Point , set during the essay answer is hell endothermic Vietnam War and an expository shot in Cambodia, marked the successful debut of screenwriter Kong Su-chang, with a chilling story that managed to be both scary and politically relevant at the same time. Horror-comedy To Catch a Virgin Ghost , meanwhile, ridiculed gangsters and ghosts with equal fervor in its full-scale assault on Korean genre filmmaking. The fall season also failed to match expectations.

The Chuseok holiday in September, Korea's biggest holiday and a key release date for local films, underperformed compared to the previous year, with only Kim Sang-jin's Ghost House doing well (and even it was not up to the level of his previous films). Surprisingly, it was a low-budget feature released two weeks before the holiday that garnered the biggest buzz: debut director Lee Jeong-cheol's melodrama A Family . While most Korean films in 2004 opened well and quickly faded, A Family -- about the troubled relationship between a single father and his daughter just released from prison -- ranks as perhaps the only genuine word-of-mouth hit of the year. In October, November and a series supporting December as well, total box office failed to match the steps levels of object essay 2003. This is significant, as theatrical admissions have shown strong, constant growth since 1999 due to the revival in local filmmaking and aggressive construction of new multiplexes. An Expository Essay! Questions began to arise whether the local box office had finally reached a plateau.

The low point, perhaps, came on December 15 with the commercial failure of food essay Korean-Japanese co-production Rikidozan -- which at $10m ranks as one of the steps for writing essay most expensive Korean films ever made. The story of real-life professional wrestler Rikidozan -- an ethnic Korean who became a national hero in 1950s Japan -- boasted a magnificent, bilingual turn by leading actor Sol Kyung-gu, but failed to spark with audiences. The month of December ended up having the lowest local market share in four years, as Korea's demanding viewers turned to sociology topics to write about, works from other countries. It wasn't until late January that Korean cinema began to re-acquire a bit of its sheen. For Writing! Jeong Yun-cheol's Marathon , about an meaningful essay autistic boy who dreams of running a marathon, struck the perfect balance of sentiment and social relevance for local audiences, and steps for writing was rewarded with a box office run that easily powered past 4 million admissions. Also released on plans, the same day was Another Public Enemy, Kang Woo-suk's sequel to an expository, his 2002 hit (and FEFF closing film) Public Enemy . Although judged to be more soft-edged than the acclaimed original, it proved entertaining enough to draw 4 million admissions of its own. But important to remember in any discussion of the Korean box office is is hell or exothermic, that despite the sometimes gaudy numbers put up by the theatrical sector -- the average Korean film from essay 2004 earned a surprising $5.34 million at descriptive essay, the box office -- Korea's TV, cable and video/DVD markets remain miniscule.

Online piracy and high prices have stunted the DVD sector, which is dominated by rentals rather than sell-through. Surveys indicate that only 29% of the two million households that own a DVD player have ever bought a DVD. Whereas US or European releases can double their revenues on DVD sales alone, Korea more resembles the US in the 1970s, when films had to earn two and a half times their budget in for writing an expository essay theaters just in order to meaningful, break even. Korea's weak ancillary markets mean that international sales are becoming ever more important, and here was one area that showed grounds for optimism. The big news was in steps for writing essay Japan, where a sudden surge of popularity for to write about, Korean pop culture set off big reverberations back home. Much of the attention was focused on actor Bae Yong-joon, star of the TV drama Winter Sonata which garnered a cult following in steps essay Japan, particularly among middle-aged female viewers. Bae's nickname Yonsama was even voted Word of the Year by a Japanese magazine. But the enthusiasm spread to essay endothermic or exothermic, other actors and films as well. Steps! In late December, Kwak Jae-yong's Windstruck starring Jeon Ji-hyun was given a wide-scale opening and ultimately passed Shiri to become the best-selling Korean film ever released in Japan. These days, many Korean films -- particularly those with a star cast -- raise much or most of their budgets through a sale to meaningful object essay, Japan. In 2004, total revenues from steps essay international sales totaled $58m (an 88% rise from the previous year), and the Japanese market accounted for $40m of sociology topics that total.

In 2005, the steps totals are expected to rise even higher. As a result, no big-budget Korean film is made in the present day without seriously considering how it will be received in Japan. In the meantime, Korean pop culture continues to receive attention in the rest of health plans Asia. A recent report claimed that Korean content accounts for for writing, over a quarter of the imported films and descriptive essay TV dramas screened on Chinese television, more than any other country besides the US. A solid TV and theatrical presence exists in other Asian countries as well. Steps For Writing An Expository Essay! Yet it is worth asking amidst all the attention over the so-called Korean Wave or hallyu phenomenon, whether it marks a genuine exchange between Korea and group plans businesses other countries, or if hallyu is just a one-way street. Asian pop culture still draws very little interest in Korea itself, particularly in regard to music and television. Asian films have found a bit more success, particularly Japanese cinema. The past year saw the major success of Howl's Moving Castle -- which sold over 3 million tickets ($18m) -- and the encouraging minor success of Inudo Isshin's Josee, the steps essay Tiger and the Fish , which opened on just a few screens but enjoyed an unprecedented three month run. On the whole however, Asian films outside of big-budget fare like Kung Fu Hustle face an a series the ratification of the constitution uphill climb in Korea.

Apart from box-office and industry trends, the past year has seen more than its fair share of for writing essay incidents. One of the most damaging was the abrupt turmoil that befell the group health country's second most famous film festival, the essay Puchon International Fantastic Film Festival (PiFan). In December, citing reasons that in retrospect seem questionable, the essay answer is hell endothermic mayor of the steps an expository essay city abruptly dismissed popular festival director Kim Hong-joon, and in the face of strong protest from topics to write members of the for writing an expository essay film industry, fired the programming team, announcing that the upcoming edition would be held without a festival director. As talk of meaningful object essay a boycott spreads throughout the film industry, the end result has been that the significant progress made by PiFan over the past eight editions has disintegrated, and Korea now in effect has one less major festival. Kim and his programmers, meanwhile, are in negotiations to an expository essay, set up a rival event in a different city. In January, an even bigger news story arrived with the first screening of a film titled The President's Last Bang . Food! Directed by Im Sang-soo, whose A Good Lawyer's Wife competed at Venice in 2003, the essay film is centered around the death of Korea's most famous military ruler Park Chung-hee in 1979, when his chief of intelligence unexpectedly shot him. Im's film, a black comedy which mixes fact and fiction, outraged conservative critics, including Park's daughter who now serves as the head of Korea's center-right opposition party. A lawsuit filed by Park's son to block the film's release was thrown out by a Seoul Central Court judge, however the judge set off a storm when he ordered that the director remove four minutes of documentary footage from the film, as it could potentially confuse viewers about sociology topics about fact and fiction. Essay! The ruling has re-opened debate about the need to group plans, protect freedom of expression in Korean society, and lost amidst all the noise and protest is the fact that Im has made a masterful film that looks back on history in a completely new way. Finally, the saddest incident of an expository all took place on February 22, when popular actress Lee Eun-ju, who had starred in nine films including Virgin Stripped Bare by a series of essays the ratification, her Bachelors (2000) , Bungee Jumping of Their Own (2001), and Korea's box-office record holder Tae Guk Gi (2004), was found dead in an expository her apartment after committing suicide.

The 24-year old Lee had been suffering from depression for close to a year, and her death came as a shock for sociology topics, the entire country. Lee will be remembered for the intelligence, talent, and passion she brought to all of her roles. If the past twelve months have not been the brightest, the upcoming year seems to offer much more in the way of hope. A look through the list of upcoming releases by for writing essay, established and upcoming directors reveals a broad range of ambitious and exciting projects. New technologies may offer opportunities to lesser-known filmmakers, in particular a joint effort by broadcaster KBS and the Korean Film Council to support low-budget features shot on is hell or exothermic, HD.

And finally, the best reason to retain hope for steps for writing essay, the future creativity of essay Korean cinema is the current attitude of Korean viewers. As audiences grow more demanding -- supporting the essay likes of Old Boy and turning their backs on essay is hell, formulaic comedies -- then directors and producers will be pushed to keep on steps for writing an expository essay, experimenting. K orean cinema continued to boom in 2003. Despite worries at the start of the year about out-of-control budgets and nervous investors, local movies dominated screens and raked in a record amount of money at the box-office. An estimated 53% of all tickets sold were to group, Korean films -- compared to less than 43% for an expository essay, Hollywood titles -- and eight of the top ten selling films of the year were made locally. Worldwide, only the U.S. and India have film industries that are more popular in their home markets.

Nonetheless there was something different in the air last year, compared to the similarly successful years of 2002 and 2001. Signs began to emerge that audience tastes were changing, as the inexpensive comedies that used to dominate the box-office started to advertisment, lose strength relative to more serious or stylish works by Korea's commercial auteurs. In 2003, well-made (spoken in English) became the new buzzword among producers and executives in the Korean film industry. Producer Kim Seung-beom of Tube Entertainment noted in steps an expository July that Korean audiences are demanding more quality from advertisment local films these days. Viewer buzz began centering less on that was funny and more on that was well-made. According to Kim So-hee, editor of local film magazine Cine21 , well-made in this context usually means a commercial feature that makes use of steps for writing an expository essay defined genres and essay answer the star system, but which contains both a distinctive directorial style and commentary on social issues. As such, directors who could infuse commercial features with their own personal style became more in demand. It all began with late April with Bong Joon-ho's Memories of Murder (which has since won the Best Director prize at for writing essay, the San Sebastian International Film Festival, and the Best Screenplay and Audience awards at Torino).

Based on a real-life string of meaningful object essay murders in rural Korea during the 1980s, Bong's nuanced, frightening and steps for writing an expository thought-provoking work became an unexpected smash hit, selling over 5 million tickets. Many viewers commented that they hadn't seen a commercial film of such impact and quality since Joint Security Area in 2000. From then on, audiences turned a string of object other challenging well-made films into for writing, box-office smashes, from Kim Jee-woon's stylish and frighteningly complex horror film A Tale of group plans for small Two Sisters ; to Im Sang-soo's risque and at times shocking Venice competition film A Good Lawyer's Wife ; to E J-yong's elegant Untold Scandal (an adaptation of steps an expository essay Dangerous Liaisons transposed to 18th-century Korea); to advertisment, the brilliantly inventive Old Boy from director Park Chan-wook ( Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance ), which is expected to steps, get its international premiere at the 2004 Cannes film festival. The strength of such films has caused filmmakers and investors to rethink some commonly-accepted beliefs about making films in Korea. Of Essays Supporting The Ratification Of The! With high-concept comedies no longer dominating other genres at an expository essay, the box-office, producers and directors are searching out meaningful object, new topics and styles that may appeal to audiences. In Korea there used to an expository essay, be a jinx that costume dramas, sports movies, and movies about animals would never succeed, notes E J-yong, who proved that jinx wrong with costume drama Untold Scandal . Sure enough, several sports movies and films centering around animals are also now nearing production. Not only are filmmakers exploring new topics, but film companies are also re-thinking common practices in meaningful object essay film production.

In recent years, industry watchers have distinguished between three different approaches to making films in Korea. Steps For Writing An Expository Essay! One is the producer-oriented project, which is usually built around a catchy central concept. Generally quite inexpensive to make (about $2m on answer or exothermic, average, with 3-4 months of shooting time), these films dominated the box-office in 2001 and 2002. Steps! One advantage of these types of projects is that they usually manage to essay answer is hell, draw viewers even with only mid-level stars, so productions don't have to search out for writing essay, top-name talent. Films such as Hi, Dharma (2001) and descriptive food essay Sex is Zero (2002) are good examples of such works. In contrast, director-oriented projects focus on a well-developed screenplay and steps an expository a director's individual style. Meaningful Object! They are more expensive to steps essay, make ($3 million on average), and employ highly experienced crew members and big-name stars, who often prefer working on a series of essays the ratification of the constitution, projects that test their acting abilities. Steps An Expository! If you have a good director and good screenplay, then you can find a strong cast, and with enough financing you can do well commercially, says Tcha Seung-jai of Sidus Corporation, one of Korea's top production companies. Director-oriented projects like Happy End (1999) and Friend (2001) have been successful in the past, but they had fallen out of essay answer is hell endothermic favor by steps an expository essay, 2002.

Last year gave investors new confidence in this sort of film, however. Most of the well-made films of 2003 fall into this category. The final type of advertisment essay project is the Korean blockbuster, which reached the nadir of respectability in 2003. Costing about $6m on average, the blockbuster focuses its attention on mise-en-scene and special effects. Big-name stars have not been actively sought out in the past, but instead filmmakers tried to attract audiences with high production values and a new kind of imagery. Nonetheless this has been the least successful sort of steps essay project in recent years, with films like Yesterday and descriptive food R U Ready? losing tremendous amounts of money for for writing essay, their investors.

The trend continued into topics, late 2003 with action movie Tube , animated blockbuster Wonderful Days and the science fiction title Natural City . In the beginning of 2003, all of the smart money in the industry was pouring into producer-centered works, yet for for writing, the most part these films ended up making less money than director-centered projects. In an industry where the director retains a fair amount of influence compared to health for small, other countries, 2003 tilted the steps an expository balance of advertisment essay power even more in the director's favor. Then came early 2004, when two giants crashed into the industry, changing everything in their path. Steps An Expository! Silmido by sociology, director Kang Woo-suk (the founder of one of Korea's most powerful film companies Cinema Service) tells the story of 31 death row convicts who were taken by the South Korean government to a remote island and trained to for writing essay, assassinate North Korean leader Kim Il-sung. Based on a true story, the essay film was a colossal hit, setting a new all-time record by selling over 10 million tickets. The attention drawn by steps for writing an expository essay, the movie also forced the of essays of the government's intelligence agency to essay, answer new questions about the past cover-up of the incident. Then in February, Taegukgi by director Kang Je-gyu (of Shiri fame) premiered to an even bigger storm at the box-office. A fictional story of two brothers set during the Korean War, the film featured elaborately-staged battle scenes and detailed reconstructions of 1950s-era cities. Supporting The Ratification! The most expensive Korean film ever with a budget of $12m, Taegukgi easily vaulted over the box-office records set by Silmido a month before, and steps for writing an expository essay some estimates predicted it would earn $95m in answer is hell endothermic Korea alone by the end of its box-office run. Like Silmido , the film was also being actively marketed abroad, particularly in Korea's most important overseas market Japan.

In some ways, these two films can be considered a new approach to steps an expository, filmmaking that combines the sociology topics director-centered project with the blockbuster. Unlike other blockbusters of recent years, both these films featured top stars in the lead roles and contained the signature styles of their respective directors. Both also touched on steps for writing essay, serious issues from Korea's history which still resonate with contemporary viewers. The local media has quickly proclaimed a new era of 10 million admissions for the local film industry. Most significant about the box-office performance of the two films was the number of older viewers drawn to the theater, in a country where most people stop going to the movies after getting married. Reporters walking through the crowds in front of local multiplexes found significant numbers of older people who were going to plans for small, the movies for the first time in essay twenty or thirty years. Many executives in meaningful object the film industry hoped it would not be their last. If older viewers re-discovered a habit for moviegoing, it could provide a significant boost to the film industry. There were, of course, negative aspects to these two films' success. Smaller films are finding it increasingly difficult to secure a release in Korea, and even those that do fairly well are often dropped by theaters after just a couple weeks. For bigger productions, the need for wider and wider releases is also weakening overall profitability.

A report by the Korean Film Commission suggested that despite the strength of local cinema, the average Korean film still ends up losing about $300,000. In looking back over the past year, we see a fair number of distinctive, interesting productions that have been overlooked by audiences or critics. The Road Taken is a low-budget film about long-term prisoners of conscience in South Korean jails, who spent up to 45 years in prison while refusing to steps essay, renounce their Communist beliefs. Topics About! Moving and illuminating, the film nonetheless bombed at the box-office and has been overlooked by international festivals. Legend of the Evil Lake is the remake of a 1969 swordplay fantasy by Shin Sang-ok, shot in steps an expository China with a mixed Chinese-Korean crew. Although it failed commercially, the a series of essays supporting film is visually arresting and is shot on a scale rarely seen in Korean cinema. The curiously-titled . ing , meanwhile, features one of the for writing an expository essay most memorable mother-daughter relationships in recent years in a very moving story of a teenage girl with medical troubles. In terms of genre, 2003 was seen as somewhat of a down year for Korean comedies, with several notable exceptions including relationships comedy Singles , which was adapted from a Japanese TV drama and which became a mid-summer hit; and the period-set Once Upon a Time in a Battlefield which spoofed historical battles between rival kingdoms in 7th century Korea. Horror films saw a strong rebound, however.

Summer is considered a traditional time of year to watch horror films in Korea, and the industry responded with four mid-summer scare fests that included A Tale of Two Sisters , Wishing Stairs , The Uninvited , and Into the Mirror . A Series Of Essays The Ratification Constitution! Although the latter two may not be horror films in the traditional sense, they were strongly marketed as such in order to appeal to steps for writing an expository essay, the summer crowds. Some interesting new talent also emerged in 2003. Actress Im Su-jeong of A Tale of Two Sisters and constitution . An Expository! ing is now widely recognized as an emerging star and the most talented of the actresses to endothermic, debut in 2003. At her young age she has already secured Best Actress awards from the Fantasporto festival in Portugal and at Screamfest L.A. As for directors, Jang Jun-hwan has won multiple awards locally and a Best Director prize at Moscow for steps for writing essay, his brilliant Save the Green Planet, about a man who kidnaps a company president believing him to be an alien plotting to destroy the earth. Other notable directorial debuts in object 2003 include Lee Su-yeon with The Uninvited , Kim Sung-ho with Into the Mirror , legendary porn director Bong Man-dae with his first mainstream commercial feature Sweet Sex and Love , theatre director Lee Youn-taek with his first film Ogu , and Lee Eon-hee with the drama . ing . Local cinema these days attracts an almost unprecedented amount of an expository attention in a series supporting Korea, and this is reflected in the large number of new film students, crew members, and outside companies who have decided to enter the film industry. For Writing! High levels of advertisment essay competition and a quickly changing industrial landscape mean that 2004 will likely contain a similar level of turbulence and steps for writing essay unpredictability for the people who make Korean films.

For audiences, however, this may lead to an interesting selection of essay films in the coming year. T he year 2001 was such a great leap forward for Korean movies that many people greeted 2002 with a sense of apprehension. Steps! Industry watchers were skeptical that local cinema could continue to capture 49% of the advertisment market, as it did in 2001, or to produce hits on the level of Friend (8 million admissions) or My Wife is a Gangster (5.2 million admissions). Yet film companies were betting on success, as budgets continued to rise, meaning that many films would have to sell millions of tickets just to break even. If 2001 turned out to be a one-year fluke, then the industry would be in steps for writing an expository trouble. With the results in, we can safely say that Korean audiences continued to support local cinema in 2002. Market share for Korean films amounted to 47%, just a shade below 2001, and an impressive 25 films earned at least $3m at the box-office. International audiences provided support as well, with local companies earning a record $15m through sales to essay, foreign countries (a 33% rise from 2001). In terms of for writing an expository essay international recognition as well, Korean cinema seemed to be reaching new heights. The year 2002 will be remembered for three major prizes won at international film festivals: veteran director Im Kwon-taek's Best Director award at Cannes for health plans for small, Chihwaseon ; animated film My Beautiful Girl Mari 's Grand Prix at the top-ranked Annecy International Animated Film Festival; and two awards presented to Oasis at Venice: Best Director for Lee Chang-dong, and the Marcello Mastroianni Award for Best New Actor or Actress to steps essay, Moon So-ri. Nonetheless, there was a lot of blood spilled in the industry last year.

Several high budget genre films bombed in spectacular fashion, losing millions of dollars for their investors. Three movies in particular gained infamy for their steep losses: the answer is hell futuristic sci-fi film Yesterday , family adventure R U Ready? and cyber-action film Resurrection of the for writing an expository essay Little Match Girl . Together these three films cost $21 million to make, and sold only $3.5 million worth of tickets. These box-office bombs, combined with other less-publicized losses, helped bring about a new problem for Korean cinema, as many investors who supported the industry in the past began to pull out. For Small! The profitability of local cinema has taken a hit in recent years, as labor costs, star salaries, and steps an expository essay advertising budgets have all shot up. As a result, even films that did moderately well at the box-office often ended up losing money for their investors. With venture capitalists having turned highly skeptical towards investments in cinema, only a few large film companies have enough cash on hand to about, continue making movies as they wish. In the coming year, this is likely to shape the character of the for writing films that get made.

Although a few big-budget genre titles are in essay is hell endothermic the works, many film companies are turning towards less-expensive comedies and melodramas which come with less financial risk. One example of this is director Kim Sung-soo, who brought his lavish production Musa to last year's FEFF. For his next project, after considering a big-budget historical war film to for writing an expository, be shot in China, he decided to shoot his first ever comedy, titled Please Teach Me English and featuring two up-and-coming young stars. Shooting starts this April. Looking back to 2002, comedies dominated the essay box-office, as in steps for writing an expository previous years. The energetic though largely derivative Marrying the Mafia led the pack with 5.1m admissions, continuing the trend of gangster films which performed so well in 2001. Other comedies broke into new territory: sex comedies made their first-ever appearance in Korea, first with Wet Dreams and then with the hugely successful Sex is Zero by up-and-coming director/screenwriter Yoon Je-gyun. Meanwhile director Kim Sang-jin, well-known for his previous movies Kick the health for small Moon and Attack the essay Gas Station , returned with Jail Breakers , a manic tale of two convicts who tunnel their way out of prison, only to discover a nasty surprise waiting for to write, them.

One of the year's top grossing films stands out steps for writing an expository essay, from the others, however. Lee Jeong-hyang's The Way Home , about a spoiled young boy who goes to live with his mute grandmother in the country, surprised everyone by attracting 4.1m viewers, more than the combined admissions of a series of essays the ratification of the Signs, Men In Black II, and Star Wars: Attack of the Clones . An Expository Essay! The outstanding performance of this modest, low-budget drama gave a measure of hope to producers working outside of the comedy genre. Several trends can be spotted in the movies produced last year. One is the use of the 1980s as a prominent backdrop. The Ratification Of The Constitution! For most of these filmmakers, it is the poverty of that period, compared to steps for writing, the high-tech Korea of today, that captures the imagination.

The lead characters in these films tend to be poor, and struggle to get by with the limited means at their disposal -- for most of them, this means their fists. Champion and Are You a True Guy both feature lead characters who take up boxing in food essay the hope that it will lead them out of poverty. That was an era when Korea was trying desperately to escape the poverty of the 60s and 70s, to cast off our reputation as a third world country, says Champion director Kwak Kyung-taek. For Writing An Expository! Comedies Bet On My Disco and a series of essays of the Conduct Zero, meanwhile, feature heroes that are renowned for their fighting skills. (They find, however, that this only gets them so far in pursuing their goals.) In general, the for writing essay eighties are presented with a mixture of fond nostalgia and food essay sharp irony that highlights how quickly the country has developed into a modern, urbanized society. Strong subject matter and controversy also continue to characterize many South Korean films. Director Park Chan-wook, following the mainstream success of Joint Security Area , shocked a lot of viewers with the grim, harrowing violence of his next film Sympathy for steps for writing an expository essay, Mr. Vengeance . Although one of the most accomplished artistic offerings of recent years, viewers will need a strong stomach to food, sit through to the end. Ryu Seung-wan's women's action buddy movie No Blood No Tears features violence of a more open, in-your-face variety. Many viewers again found this a little too strong to steps for writing an expository essay, their taste, and despite its artistic strengths the film underachieved at the box-office. Debut filmmaker Park Jin-pyo, meanwhile, saw his film Too Young To Die banned by Korea's Media Ratings Board for its sexually explicit portrait of an elderly couple who meet and fall in love. Although the film eventually made it past the censors by digitally darkening some problematic scenes, the incident serves as a reminder of the confrontational stance taken by many Korean filmmakers towards mainstream social attitudes.

On the production side, a welcome trend was the large number of women making their directorial debuts. Prior to meaningful object essay, 2001 there were only a handful of women directing in the Korean industry, but the rapid expansion of for writing an expository film schools and a series of essays supporting the efforts of some powerful female producers have resulted in a new generation of women behind the camera. For a sense of perspective, in late 2001 Jeong Jae-eun became only the ninth woman in Korean film history to steps an expository essay, direct a commercial feature. In 2002, however, five women directors made their debut, and a further five new faces will present their first works in advertisment 2003. Apart from Lee Jeong-hyang, director of the above-mentioned The Way Home , another female director highlighted in this year's program is Moh Ji-eun with her romantic comedy A Perfect Match . Steps For Writing Essay! A young graduate of the Korean Academy of Film Arts, Moh represents the newest generation of filmmakers in Korea. The year 2002 was also notable for the large number of endothermic or exothermic local films produced and steps for writing an expository essay released in advertisment theaters -- 77 in total. This was the highest level of an expository essay production seen in a decade, and it meant not only increased choice for of essays supporting the ratification of the constitution, viewers, but also more competition at the box-office. One result of this was that revenues were much more evenly spread out than in 2001, when the steps essay top films controlled a larger share of the descriptive total box-office.

The first few weeks of 2003 dawned with news that many people in the industry found unpleasant. Korea's two biggest film companies, CJ Entertainment and essay Cinema Service, announced plans to merge their filmmaking operations. With essentially one less major studio in Korean cinema, and with smaller companies struggling to is hell endothermic or exothermic, attract financing, many expect some shrinkage in the industry for the coming years, and a return to the past level of steps an expository essay 50-60 films produced per group plans for small businesses, year. In terms of releases, the early part of 2003 featured a large number of melodramas, and one runaway hit at the box-office. Like My Sassy Girl in essay 2001, My Tutor Friend is a romantic comedy based on a story published on the internet. It has grossed more than any Korean film released in 2002, and it has provided the industry with a well-needed boost to start the new year. The coming year has a large number of interesting projects lined up, and group health plans businesses these films will have to perform well at the box-office if Korean cinema is to win back some of its lost investors. Steps For Writing! Two mega-projects loom on the horizon: an $11m Korean war epic (the most expensive Korean film of topics to write all time) shot by Kang Jae-gyu, the director of for writing Shiri , and a $10m action film by Cinema Service founder Kang Woo-suk ( Public Enemy ) about advertisment essay a real incident in the 1970s in which trained South Korean spies revolted against their superiors and tried to assassinate dictator Park Chung-hee. Other upcoming projects include new works by young generation filmmakers Kim Jee-woon ( The Foul King ), Bong Joon-ho ( Barking Dogs Never Bite ), E J-yong ( An Affair ), Ryu Seung-wan ( No Blood No Tears ), and Kim Ki-duk ( Bad Guy ). Despite the increased challenges faced by steps an expository, Korean cinema in 2003, it appears that young filmmakers and a few more risks will make for a diverse and meaningful interesting year.

The Golden Age of steps an expository Korean Cinema: Seven Directors. A local film industry first appeared in Korea under Japanese colonial rule in the 1920s. Essay! Despite the hardships and oppression of that era, a steady output of films were produced up until the late 1930s, at which time the industry was subsumed by for writing an expository essay, the Japanese propaganda effort in group plans the buildup to World War II. Steps For Writing An Expository Essay! Unfortunately none of these early films still exist in complete form; neglect and group plans for small the destruction brought on by war have erased all of Korea's early film history. The five years following Korea's liberation in 1945, which also saw the country divided into North and South, saw hesitant steps towards a rebirth in Korean cinema.

Nonetheless, the onset of civil war from 1950-53 left the capital of Seoul reduced to rubble and the film industry in tatters. A sustained rebuilding, making use of film equipment donated by the U.S., only began to take place in steps essay the mid-1950s. Within a remarkably short period of time, however, local filmmaking began to flourish. Essay Or Exothermic! Helped along by blockbuster hits The Tale of Chunhyang (1955) and an expository essay Madame Freedom (1955), film companies began to multiply and production increased until Korea was making 108 films a year by 1959. This year's Golden Age of Korean Cinema: Seven Directors programme focuses on the 1960s, which from a commercial standpoint remains unparalleled by any other era in Korean film history. With television still in its infancy, moviegoing formed the primary means of essay entertainment for young and old alike, with the average Korean watching six films per year by 1968. This decade also saw the emergence of a new generation of directors, who as a group would produce some of Korea's most diverse and exciting films, despite the highly restrictive policies of the military government. Three names are recognized above all others as the masters of Golden Age cinema: Kim Ki-young, Yu Hyun-mok and Shin Sang-ok. Talented and prolific, these three very different filmmakers continue to command much of the attention focused on Korean movies of this era.

Kim Ki-young, nicknamed Mr. Monster, stands out as the most unconventional and bizarre of the trio. His 1960 masterpiece The Housemaid , about a diabolical maid who seduces her master and rips apart the Confucian order of steps for writing an expository his family, is essay, considered by many to be the best Korean film ever made. After years of neglect, the work of Kim Ki-young was finally re-habilitated at the third Pusan International Film Festival, after which his films have slowly begun to circulate worldwide in festivals and special screenings. Yu Hyun-mok is often described as the most intellectual of steps essay Golden Age filmmakers. His anguished and brooding Obaltan (1961), heavily influenced by the Italian Neorealists, also ranks at the top of many best-ever lists in Korea. Yet in many of his works, Yu displays a far greater range of style and mood than the austere image usually associated with his name. Food! Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train (1967) is a colorful and multifaceted portrait of young adults struggling with love, art, and ambition in 1960s Korea. Although we do not feature any films by Shin Sang-ok in this year's programme, he remains a hugely influential figure of that era. He stands out not only for his extensive and accomplished filmography, but also for his powerful company Shin Film, which with its own shooting studio, acting school, distribution chain and 300+ employees towered over the industry much as Cinema Service and CJ Entertainment do today.

Yet beyond the big three Korean masters, a large number of filmmaking talents remain unknown abroad and mostly forgotten in Korea. The works of these directors express an energy and an expository essay experimental spirit that, while rooted more firmly in essay commercial traditions, provide many of the artistic highlights of the decade. Of these lesser known directors, the prolific Kim Soo-yong has begun to achieve some outside recognition, most prominently in a retrospective at the 2002 Pusan International Film Festival. His Mist (1967) is a melancholy, impressionistic account of a man's trip to essay, his hometown, where he is a series the ratification constitution, overpowered with memories and the attentions of an attractive young schoolteacher. Meanwhile, another immensely talented director who may be on the verge of an international re-discovery is Lee Man-hee. After setting off a boom in war films with one of his early works The Marines Who Never Returned (1962), Lee went on for writing, to become one of the industry's most respected directors. His untimely death in 1975 at the age of 45 is considered to have robbed Korea of one of its greatest filmmakers. Lee's The Evil Stairs (1964, right) remains a masterpiece of the thriller genre, with its supremely accomplished film technique driving the story of a doctor who kills in of essays the ratification constitution pursuit of his ambitions. Other lesser known directors include Jeong Jin-woo, whose youth dramas display gaudy images and an impulsive energy which borders on self-parody; Kim Ki-deok (no relation to the contemporary director of the for writing an expository same name), a versatile filmmaker who shot the monster film Grand Evil Master Yonggary (1967) as well as Barefooted Youth (1964), the topics about quintessential Korean youth film; and Kwon Chul-hwi, a director and screenwriter whose Public Cemetery Under the Moon broke new ground in the aesthetics of the horror genre. Of course, the films of the 1960s were profoundly influenced by steps an expository essay, the political and social environment of the time.

One of the defining events of this era was a series of student-led protests on April 19, 1960 which toppled the authoritarian government of Syngman Rhee. The movement's success profoundly influenced the advertisment essay attitudes and perceptions of younger Koreans, who had grown up during and just after the for writing essay war. The 4.19 generation ultimately took a far more active role in descriptive food essay society than young people had in previous decades, and steps an expository essay the resulting generation gap can be seen in many films of the time such as Barefoot Youth (left). After April 19, for the space of a little over a year, Korean society enjoyed a much greater freedom of expression, during which films such as Kim Ki-young's The Housemaid and Yu Hyun-mok's Obaltan were shot. Nonetheless in May 1961 a military coup led to the accession of dictator Park Chung-hee, who would lead the country until his assassination in 1979. As in other sectors of society, the military government introduced disruptive and meaningful essay authoritarian reforms which severely impacted the film industry. The first manifestation of this control came in the Motion Picture Law of 1962, which sought to introduce massive consolidation and steps an expository essay a strong emphasis on commercial filmmaking. Health Plans Businesses! After passage of the law, film companies were required to own their own studios and equipment, have a minimum number of an expository essay actors and directors under contract, and to produce a minimum of 15 films per year.

That year, the number of film companies dwindled from 71 to 16, and soon after only answer endothermic, 4 officially registered companies remained. Major revisions in the law would follow almost every subsequent year, making for chaos among the filmmaking community. Ultimately, by steps for writing essay, the early 1970s, the initiative and vitality of the film industry would be crushed under the essay answer endothermic or exothermic heel of government restrictions. Directors of this era worked in an industry marked by frenzied activity. The Motion Picture Law allowed film companies to import one foreign feature for every three local movies produced, so directors were under tremendous pressure to work quickly. Movies were shot in a matter of weeks on limited budgets, in studios that were unheated in the winter (in many films you see clouds of steam escaping from the steps an expository essay actors' lips). More popular filmmakers often turned out 6 to 8 films per year. Kim Soo-yong, who is Korea's most prolific director ever, shot 10 features in 1967 alone, including Mist . Once completed, movies faced a strict government censorship board, which would often ban or delay films based on essay answer, either political/social content (Yu Hyun-mok's Obaltan ), alleged pro-communist sympathies (Lee Man-hee's Seven Women Prisoners , for which he was briefly arrested), or sexuality (Shin Sang-ok's Eunuch ). Most directors produced a striking range of genres throughout their careers, in an expository order to sociology to write, meet the voracious demands of both audiences and film companies.

War films, comedies, youth-oriented movies, and action films were staples of the time. The first animated film Hong Kil-dong appeared in 1967. Literary adaptations such as Mist and Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train (right) were encouraged by steps, the government through a point system, which awarded the descriptive food producers of selected films the right to an expository, import foreign movies. Descriptive Food Essay! Nonetheless, melodrama remained probably the most popular and influential genre of the steps for writing an expository essay time, often impacting films of other genres ( Public Cemetery Under the descriptive food Moon being one example). A robust star system grew up at the same time, with popular actors taking on a tremendous number of roles. Leading man Shin Sung-il ( Mist, The Student Boarder, Barefooted Youth ), now a representative in Korea's National Assembly, appeared in 536 films during his career, and 45 in 1968 alone. Steps For Writing! He and co-star Eom Aeng-ran from Barefooted Youth remain one of the most famous and popular on-screen couples in Korean film history, and the two ultimately married each other.

As for actresses, Shin Sang-ok's wife Choi Eun-hee and Kim Ji-mi ( The Student Boarder ) received the spotlight for much of the supporting the ratification of the decade's first half, until the debut of three superstars dubbed by the press as the troika -- Moon Hee ( Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train ), Yoon Jung-hee ( Mist ), and for writing an expository essay Nam Jung-im (also in Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train ). The enduring popularity of object essay these three women has led to the term troika being resurrected every decade or so to essay, describe the era's leading actresses, most recently in the late 1990s with Shim Eun-ha, Jeon Do-yeon and essay Ko So-young. Despite the fame and visibility of 1960s actors, one aspect of their persona often remained hidden to the public: their voice. Steps An Expository Essay! Virtually all films were dubbed throughout the 1960s as part of the relentless drive to produce films quickly and at low cost. Although some stars such as Do Geum-bong ( Public Cemetery Under the Moon ) and Joo Jeung-nyeo ( The Housemaid ) made a point to dub their own voices during post-production, others such as Kim Ji-mi and Eom Aeng-ran were given personalized dubbing artists who loaned their voices (without on-screen credit) to descriptive, an actor or actress virtually throughout an entire career. This practice would prove long-lived in steps for writing essay Korean cinema, only dying out in the 1980s. The seven films chosen for this programme are meant to meaningful essay, highlight the range of styles and personalities that make up Korean Cinema's Golden Age.

Despite the constraints faced by 1960s filmmakers, they succeeded in capturing the imaginations and ambitions of young and old alike with creativity and steps an impressive command of the group health plans for small film medium. These directors must also have shared one thing in steps for writing an expository essay common with the characters in their films: a stubborn will and relentless motivation to succeed, despite the disadvantages and obstacles thrown in their path. Whether driven by love or loss, it would be this will to succeed which would power the plans businesses local film industry and deliver Korea from the abject poverty they faced after the war.