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Alcohol: Is it that bad for you?-Persuasive Essay | Madjanecrazy s Blog
book report citing APPENDIX I. LISTING AND CITING REFERENCES IN REPORTS. Publishers and professional societies have their own preferred way of listing and citing references. For use in this laboratory, we are describing the requirements for reports submitted to the MIT School of Chemical Engineering Practice. You may use any method for listing and citing references to which you are accustomed, provided you are consistent and persuasive essay on alcohol, supply at least as much information as is required in the procedures described here. If you have no preference, these procedures should be used. Book Report Elementary? All references in reports should be listed in a section entitled “References” , with page numbers and a listing in the Table of Contents. Persuasive Essay On Alcohol? References may be listed alphabetically by author and numbered consecutively, or they may be arranged in order of appearance in of a place the text. General References which have not been cited should be listed in persuasive speech essay a separate Bibliography . A reference should be listed only once and referred to be the same number each time it is cited in the text. Reference numbers in the text may be given as superscripts, or underlined and enclosed in parentheses, thus ( 4 ). do not use superscripts where they may be mistaken for indices.
Make references to equations in such a way that they will not be confused with literature citations. Citations taken from an abstract or any other secondary source must state both the original and the secondary source. Methods for listing and quotations about essay village life, citing different reference sources are described in the pages following the index on the next page. Essay? If you encounter special reference problems, consult an instructor or a librarian. INDEX - LISTING AND CITING REFERENCES. 1. Methods of Listing 30. 2. Journals 30. 3. Foreign Journals 31. Book Report Elementary? 5. Sections of an Edited Book 32. 6. Proceedings of essay, a Conference or Symposium 32. 7. Trade Magazines 33.
8. Manufacturers Literature 33. 9. Literature Published Anonymously 34. 10. Patents 34. 11. Government Reports 34. 13. An Expository Of A Particular? Practice School Reports 35. 14. Personal Communications 35. 15.
Other Sources 36. Speech? 16. Use of Ibid., Other Latin Terms 36. 1. Methods of book school, Listing. Listings may be alphabetically, by author, or serially, by order of citation. ALPHABETICAL LISTINGS are ordered according to the last name of the first author. In reference: The first author is listed last name first, followed by the initials, followed by the names of the other authors, initials first , then last name.
If there are multiple authors, their names should be separated by commas. Example : Balzhiser, R.E., M.R. Samuels, and J.D. Eliassen. When references are LISTED IN ORDER OF CITATION IN THE TEXT , the persuasive speech on alcohol, first author’s initials precede his last name. About Essay Life? Punctuation is the same as in the first example. A JOURNAL REFERENCE should include the: title of the article, enclosed in speech essay quotation marks, name of the new york times essays l. friedman, journal, abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts conventions and on alcohol, underlined to indicate where italics are to be represented, volume number, in research underlined Arabic numerals, followed immediately (no comma) by the issue number enclosed in parentheses but not underlined, if needed or desired, page number, and. year of publication, enclosed in parentheses. A comma appears between each section of the reference, except between the page number and year of publication. Note that the comma after the title of the article is enclosed in the quotation marks, as dictated by typographical usage. On Alcohol? One exception to the Chemical Abstracts list of questions for efl students, abbreviations is that for essay A.I.Ch.E.
Journal , which should be abbreviated AIChE J. Example : Ogunnaike, B.A., J.P. Lemaire, M. Morari, and W.H. Ray, “Advanced Multivariable control of a Pilot-Scale Distillation Column,” AIChE J., 29 (4), 632(1983). Amundson, N.R., and L.E. Arri, “Char Gasification in a Counter-Current Reactor,” AIChE J., 24 , 87(1978). For the few JOURNALS WHICH DO NOT HAVE A VOLUME NUMBER , the year should be given in processor research paper place of the volume number, e.g., J. Persuasive Speech? Chem. Soc., A, 1961 , 471.
3. Foreign Journals. Write An Expository Essay That Explains The Attractions Of A Place? REFERENCES TO FOREIGN JOURNALS should use the original title of the journal, transliterated if necessary, unless the journal is translated. The following examples derive from a Russian article first noted in Chemical Abstracts . A. The Original Article . If the Russian article were used, the reference should follow the speech essay on alcohol, standard form for report journal references listed previously. Example : Gnusin, N.P., and V.F. Grebenyuk, “Electrical Conductivity of Ion Exchange Resins. Model Representations,” Zh. Fiz. Khim., 39, 3050(1965). B. The Abstract . If the information in a translated abstract were cited in the text, the reference would follow the form for a journal reference, except that the abstract should also be cited as follows: Example : Gnusin, N.P., and on alcohol, V.D. Grebenyuk, “Electrical Conductivity of Ion Exchange Resins.
Model Representations, “ Zh. Fiz. Khim., 39 , 3050(1965) abstract in Chemical Abstracts, 64 , 9893(d)(1996). C. The translated Article . In the case of widely used journals such as this one, one has to know or be able to find out from the library that Zhurnal Fizicheskoi Khimii is routinely translated cover-to-cover into English and is published as the Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry by research paper, the Chemical Society in London. The abstract in persuasive speech Chemical Abstracts refers to the original Russian article, and there is no indication that a translation into English exists. The translation is done by Infosearch, Ltd., London. If the translation were used in the course of the work, the reference should be: Example : Gnusin, N.P., and V.D. Grebenyuk, “Electrical Conductivity of Ion Exchange Resins. Model Representations,” Russ.
J. Phys. Chem., 39 , 1627(1965) translated by write explains of a, Infosearch, Ltd., London(1965). Note that the persuasive speech essay on alcohol, page numbers in the original and in the translation are not the same. In some cases, the volume numbers and years of publication of the translations are not the same as in the original. Essay That Place? Therefore, completeness in recording the persuasive essay, reference is especially important. In the case of the Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry , the translation is encountered so frequently that it is probably not necessary to cite the name of the processor paper, translator. REFERENCES TO BOOKS should include the: title of the book, enclosed in quotation marks or underlined, edition, of persuasive speech, not the an expository explains the attractions of a place, first edition, volume number, if there is more than one volume, inclusive pages of interest, city of publication, and. date of speech, publication. A comma appears between each section of the reference. It is write essay place, especially important that the pages referred to be given.
However, if different pages of the same book are referred to in different places in the text, it is permissible to list the pages in the text, and to omit page numbers from the reference citation. Thus, the text might read “. Ref.(14) pp. 128-137 . ” This is an alternative to the use of “ibid.”, described in a separate section, and economizes on reference numbers. Example : Flory, P.J., Principles of Polymer Chemistry , 578-579, Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, 1953.
Reid, R.c., J.M. Speech Essay? Prausnitz, and questions students, T.K. Sherwood, The Properties of Gases and Liquids , 3rd ed., 263-267, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977. 5. Section of an Edited Book. REFERENCES TO A CHAPTER OR SECTION IN A BOOK WRITTEN BY SOMEONE OTHER THAN THE EDITOR of the persuasive on alcohol, book should include the: name of the author of the section, title of the section, enclosed in quotation marks, title of the book, also enclosed in elementary school quotation marks or underlined, editor of the book, so noted, pages of interest, city of publication, and. date of publication. A comma separates each section.
Example : Mayo, F.R., J.G. Speech Essay On Alcohol? Huntington, and times 2004 essays thomas, N.A. Kirshen, “Chemistry of Coal Liquefaction” in Organic Chemistry of Coal , J.W. Larsen, ed., 126-130, American Chemical Society, Washington, 1978. Persuasive? 6. Proceedings of a Conference or Symposium. REFERENCES TO PAPERS IN THE PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE OR SYMPOSIUM should include the: title of the paper, enclosed in quotation marks, title of the proceedings of the conference, underlined, volume number, if there is one, pages of processor paper, interest, name of the society sponsoring the conference or symposium, city where the conference was held, and. Speech On Alcohol? year of the conference, enclosed in parentheses.
Each section of the reference is 2004 essays, separated by a comma except the city and year. Persuasive Speech? Example : Newman, J., “Mass Transport and Potential Distribution in the Geometrics of Localized Corrosion,” Proc. U.R. Evans Int. Conf. Localized Corrosion, Nat.
Assoc. Corrosion Eng. , Houston (1974). Lehr, J.R., and G.H. Essay The Attractions Of A Particular? McClellan, “Phosphate Rocks: Important Factors in Their Economic and Technical Evaluation,” X235 CENTO Symposium on speech essay on alcohol the Mining and Benefication of Fertilizer Minerals , 194, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (1967). 7. Trade Magazines. TRADE MAGAZINES often number pages starting with one in each issue. In such cases, follow the procedure described for journal references, except that : it is essential to list the System Software, issue number, in parentheses after the essay on alcohol, volume number, but not underlined, and not separated from the volume number by System Software, a comma, or to include the month and day in the date of publication, whichever will allow the reader to find the article faster. Example : Kirby, G.N., “Corrosion Performance of Carbon Steel,” Chem. Eng. (N.Y.), 86 , 72(March 12, 1978). Kovac, A., and J. Ziak, “Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the system Trioxane-Water,” Petrochemia, 10 (2), 77(1970). 8. Manufacturer’s Literature.
MANUFACTURER’S LITERATURE which carries no personal author’s name may be listed alphabetically under a corporate author if the arrangement of the section is alphabetical by author. The following example would also serve in a serial listing, although in speech essay on alcohol that case, you have the option of report school, listing the persuasive essay, title of the bulletin first. The reference should include the: title of the literature, enclosed in quotations, bulletin or publication number, if applicable, location of the company. Example : Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers, “1977 Director of Certified Room Air Conditioners,” 3rd ed., 7, Chicago, IL. 9. Literature Published Anonymously. In cases where NO AUTHOR, CORPORATION, OR ORGANIZATION NAME appears with the article, and reference are being listed alphabetically by author, insert unidentified author or anon. followed by research, a comma in place of the author’s name, and place the reference at the end of the list. Where references are listed in order of persuasive speech essay, appearance in the text, the word “anon.” is not necessary.
Example : anon. , “Major Nuclear Power Orders for U.S. Enriched Uranium - October 1966,” Nucleonics, 24 (12), 72(1966). REFERENCES TO PATENTS should include the: name of the inventor, followed by the assignee, if any, enclosed in parentheses, title of the patent, enclosed in quotation marks, the that explains of a, patent number including the granting country, and. date of issue of the patent, including the month, day and year. Speech Essay? Example : Banks, W.D., (to Automation Products, Inc.), “Method of and Apparatus for new york times 2004 thomas l. friedman Measuring Viscosity,” U.S. Persuasive Speech? Patent 3,292,423, Dec.
20, 1966. 11. Government Reports. System Software? REPORTS ISSUED BY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES , such as the Department of Energy, NASA, and persuasive speech essay, the National Bureau of Standards, should include the: title of the questions for efl, report, enclosed in quotation marks, pages of interest, date in parentheses. There should be a comma between each part of the reference except the persuasive, date and location. Example : Deverall, J.E., and J.E. Kemme, “Satellite Heat Pipe,” LA-3278-MS, 9, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM(1965).
If the an expository essay that explains of a particular, catalog number of the National Technical Information Service, which is the persuasive on alcohol, supplier of all government documents, is known, it should be given, e.g., NTIS PB403-708. REFERENCES TO THESES should include the: title of the thesis, in quotation marks, degree for which the thesis was presented, pages of interest, and. year, in parentheses. Separate each section except the essay, last two by a comma. Example : Fisher, R.E., “Concentration Polarization in Desalination by Reverse Osmosis,” Sc.D. Thesis, Dept. of Chem. Eng., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 33(1965). 13. Practice School Reports. REFERENCES TO MIT PRACTICE SCHOOL REPORTS should include the: title of the report enclosed in quotation marks, pages of interest, and. year of the report, enclosed in persuasive speech essay on alcohol parentheses.
Each section of the reference should be separated by a comma except the last two. Example : Field, L.A., A.J. Papadopolous, and R.D. Wang, “Surface Properties and Reactions of Coal, Part 2,” ORNL/MIT-270, 21(1978). 14. Personal Communications. REFERENCES TO PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS should be used with caution; they are usually useless as references. When practicable, you may eliminate references to personal communications by citing the entire reference in the text, e.g., “Our consultant, Dr. David Sung of Gold start Company, says. ”. Reference to a personal communication should include the: means of communication, e.g., letter, personal contact, rough draft of a report, date: month, day, and year. Separate each section of the reference by a comma.
Example : Whatley, M.E., personal communication, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, March 7, 1957. 15. Other sources. REFERENCES TO OTHER SOURCES not mentioned here should be given in a form agreeing as closely as possible with the write explains of a place, above examples. To make it easier for the interested reader to locate the reference, you should give too much information rather than too little, in case there is any doubt about the form. 16. Use of Ibid., Other Latin Terms. ibid. is the persuasive speech on alcohol, abbreviation for “ibidem”, meaning “in the same place”, and is occasionally found in the scientific literature. This abbreviation is useful when reference is quotations about village life, made to the same work several times, but to different pages or sections, and references are listed alphabetically by persuasive speech, author. Processor Paper? This greatly simplifies the second and subsequent references. (37) Levenspiel, O., “Chemical Reaction Engineering,” 2nd ed., 277, Wiley, New York, 1972.
Other Latin terms such as loc. cit. ( loco citato , “in the place cited”), or op. cit. ( opere citato , “in the work cited”) are not generally used in scientific literature.
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macbeth essay Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of persuasive speech William Shakespeare interpret the main theme of the play as intertwining with evil and ambition: While in Hamlet and others of Shakespeare's plays we feel that Shakespeare refined upon paper, and brooded over persuasive his thoughts, Macbeth seems as if struck out at a heat and imagined from first to report elementary last with rapidity and power, and persuasive on alcohol, a subtlety of workmanship. Then, after murdering the King, Macbeth comes to her with his hands all covered with blood and carrying the grooms' daggers. Not only that, but he's so unnerved that all he can do is look at his hands and talk about voices that he heard. She tries to be reasonable, saying, Why, worthy thane, / You do unbend your noble strength, to book report think (2.2.41-43), but he's paralyzed with horror. Finally, she has to do what he should have done. She takes the persuasive essay daggers from him, carries them back to write essay explains the attractions place them with. Essay on The Guilty of the Two in Macbeth.
perpetration. Her language to Macbeth is the speech on alcohol most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare explain how guilt impacts Lady Macbeth: Having sustained her weaker husband, her own strength gives way; and in sleep, when her will cannot control her thoughts, she is piteously afflicted by the memory of one stain of blood upon her little hand. (792) The Tragedy of Macbeth opens in a desert place. Macbeth and Lady Macbeths Character Essay. We can immediately see by her reaction how ambitious Lady Macbeth herself is because she is not satisfied by Macbeth’s big promotion but wants even more power. She may also appear evil by the speed in which she decides killing is the essay students answer. After being informed by a messenger that Macbeth is on her way, Lady Macbeth delivers a famous speech asking for help of spirits to rid her of her natural feminine ways so that she can convince Macbeth to carry out the bloody deeds needed to take over the crown.
Macbeth- the persuasive Evil of Lady Macbeth Essay. themselves, and System Software, that their fitness now. Persuasive Speech Essay On Alcohol. (I, vii, 47-53) She says Macbeth is a coward, but then appeals to his pride and manhood saying that when he had the courage to do it he was superhuman, and ready to create an opportunity. Now when he has it, he shrinks back at the thought and will not do it. Lady Macbeth goes further to threaten him with her love, saying that if he does not do it she will not love him anymore. Moreover, Lady Macbeth is actively part of the crime that she urges her husband to. Essay on Macbeth and new york thomas l. friedman, Lady Macbeth are Not Evil. his son, Malcolm, as his successor, Macbeth realises that, if he is to be king, then he must kill Duncan: The Prince of persuasive Cumberland! That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o'erleap for in my way it lies. Stars hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires. (I.iv.49-52).
When Lady Macbeth reads in her husband's letter of the witches' prediction, she, too, realises that Duncan must be killed for it to come true. She thinks that Macbeth deserves to be great, and should murder. Essay Comparing Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, who should against quotations life, his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. Speech On Alcohol. (1.7.12) Macbeth is conflicted between his morals and his ambition. In stark contrast to her husband Lady Macbeth is not conflicted. In the an expository that explains of a fifth scene of essay on alcohol act one, she is reading a letter from Macbeth that describes his encounter with the witches.
After she reads the letter she becomes excited and wants to aid her husband in anyway she can. Report. She. Who is the Dominant Partner between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth? As the more dominant and ruthless of the two, it is Lady Macbeth that devises the persuasive speech essay on alcohol plan for killing Duncan, and tells Macbeth to “Leave all the rest with me.” This suggests that Lady Macbeth cannot rely on Macbeth to plan the times essays l. friedman killing of Duncan, as it is not in his gentle nature, but she knows that Macbeth will be easily persuaded to carry out on alcohol, her wicked plan. After Macbeth kills Duncan he feels very guilty, and says, “will great Neptunes ocean wash this blood clean from. in a later revision ofMacbeth, inserting passages from his own play, The Witch. Macbeth's curse Macbeth is also known as 'The Scottish Play' due to a long-held superstition that the play has a curse upon quotations about essay, it and that if anyone utters the word 'Macbeth' in a theatre, outside the context of persuasive speech essay a rehearsal or performance, tragedy will befall the production. The characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are therefore referred to by a nickname, such as 'Mackers' and 2004 essays, 'Lady Mackers' or similar.
To remedy. evilmac Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Were Not Evil Essay. Macbeth and his mistress housekeeper also have their doubts during the proceedings of the murder. Persuasive Speech. Lady Macbeth paces around the new york 2004 thomas l. friedman room saying that he won't commit the murder, instead of plotting their next move like a true evil-incarnate would do. Macbeth also starts to persuasive on alcohol haunt himself; he says that he heard a voice say Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep (II.II.49-50) And is so paralized by write essay of a, what he has done that he makes the huge mistake of bringing the dagger back. Exploring the essay on alcohol Actions of Macbeth that Backfired in Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. The irony in the murder of King Duncan is that Macbeth planned on becoming king in System Software, rightful manner by earning the persuasive speech essay respect and the title by doing good things such as saving Malcolm but instead of getting closer to the throne by saving him, he got even further away from it since he was named prince which forced Macbeth to become king in an unrighteous way. As a result, the only choice that Macbeth had was to kill Duncan. The second murder that Macbeth has committed was also an essential component in. Lady Macbeth as a Wife and as a Woman in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth.
never shows her true personality. Write Essay That Place. When Macbeth enters the persuasive on alcohol scene, Lady Macbeth showers him with praise and salutations of his successes and his prophesised kingship. I think that she does this as she is very proud to have a husband who will make her queen. When Macbeth tells her that King Duncan comes her tonight, Lady Macbeth replies and when goes hence? I think that this is a test for Macbeth, as it will let Lady Macbeth know if she should tell him all about her. Essay on an expository essay that explains of a particular, The Effect of persuasive speech on alcohol Evil in System Software, Witches and Lady Macbeth on speech essay on alcohol, Macbeth. Macbeth, the thane of Glamis, a noble man of 2004 thomas l. friedman Scotland, a general in speech essay on alcohol, the Scotland King's army and a great warrior is self-satisfied with his position, until the three witches tell him in the third scene of the first act, All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor. All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter.
Just after hearing this, Macbeth and Banquo, his noble friend and a general in the King's army receive a message from Ross that Macbeth has been. However, we also see here that Macbeth can be ruthless as the captain goes on to say ‘- disdaining Fortune- with brandished steel, which smoked with bloody execution’ He is new york times l. friedman, describing how Macbeth was not merciful in speech, the battle, how he killed with such a force that smoke was coming off the cold sword as he sliced at his warm victims. When King Duncan hears the success of the battle was largely due to Macbeths bravery he says in book, Act 1 scene 2-24 ‘Oh valiant cousin, worthy gentleman’ and Act 1 Scene. Androgyny in the Characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay. The nothing of this line connotes absence, and in the language of early modern England this meant absence of a male phallus and the presence of female genitalia (Bevington 1090). Therefore, this proclamation of Macbeth is persuasive, not merely an excuse for essays l. friedman, his strange behavior at the dinner table, but is also a symbolic representation that the on alcohol cause of System Software his downfall can be attributed to the 'woman' in him. Lamentation is an expression of being powerless to effect one's own affective environment, and. Lady Macbeth Is Essentially the Villain in Macbeth Essay. Lady Macbeth begins her quest to achieve what she wants by persuasive on alcohol, using his ambition to be King, but as it goes along and he starts to have second thoughts she begins to quotations about life play on his insecurities as a man. “Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem’s the ornament of life, and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting “I dare not” wait upon “I would, ” like the poor cat i' th' adage? “ Lady Macbeth persuades Macbeth with by basically asking him if he will take the crown he desires badly, or will he live. contaminated by ambition, destiny’s supposed scheme, the temptation of power and the conviction of essay pleasing his beloved but poisonous wife. As Shanley states, Macbeth would have resisted temptation if had he been left to himself, to the non-corrupted man he was before being exposed to essay questions the inducements of on alcohol society.
Opposed to Shakespeare’s usual heroes, Macbeth is times l. friedman, absolutely aware of the persuasive speech essay on alcohol malice present in the act that grants him the an expository essay that explains place reign. He’s also conscious that most likely the persuasive succession of an expository place events will lead. murderer kills a person it is an extension of Macbeths inferiority complex. Persuasive Essay. Macbeth believes that being able to questions students kill whom ever he wants he is superior above anyone else and that Macbeth is able to on alcohol be responsible in the death of a child shows that he is quotations essay village life, not the same person as the beginning of the play his ego or his illness is now taking him over. The dead child apparition I believe represents the son. The first apparition represents Macduff telling Macbeth to beware of him for killing his son, he. Essay about persuasive essay, Relationship Between Macbeth and write explains, Lady Macbeth. King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is the one that is mainly controlling her husband. She judges his manhood when she says that Macbeth’s ambition needs to match the actions. They would seem like a normal couple but actually they are both greedy.
Macbeth is a respected general in the kingdom and their position must be important if the king is to eat dinner at persuasive speech essay on alcohol their home. No matter who was strongest in their marriage, they were certainly in questions for efl students, love with each other. However, it was Lady Macbeth who shows strength. Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - The Powerful Lady Macbeth Essay. assassination plot. Although it is persuasive speech on alcohol, Macbeth who commits the actual deed of murder, it is essay, Lady Macbeth who returns to Duncan's chamber and smears the blood upon the grooms. Her self-control is superhuman; in fact, Macbeth is terrified of it and her unfailing resourcefulness. In this example, Shakespeare demonstrates how much self control she has over the evil deed: A little water clears us of speech essay on alcohol this deed: / How easy it is then! (II, ii, 66-67). In fact, Lady Macbeth tried to an expository explains the attractions of a particular murder Duncan herself. Macbeth by persuasive speech essay on alcohol, Shakespeare - Lady Macbeth and Themes Essay. just how she sees them fit and tells it like it is.
With out quotations essay, her fortitude and ambition, Macbeth would not have started his killing spree which would have kept him from becoming king of Scotland. Ambition, a strong desire to do or achieve something, is one of the speech central theme’s focused on book report elementary school, in this work. While the male characters are just as violent and prone to evil as the women, the aggression of Lady Macbeth is more striking because it goes against prevailing expectations of how women ought to. shalt get kings, though thou be none”(Shakespeare 1:3 69). This means that Banquo will not be king, but his descendents in the future will. Persuasive Essay On Alcohol. When the witches proclaim this prediction, Macbeth is also in the scene. Banquo’s prediction is still stuck into Macbeth’s mind even when he becomes the System Software new King of Scotland. Macbeth thinks that Banquo’s prediction is dangerous to persuasive him since it means that there is a possibility that he cannot keep his kingship for essay life, long and that he cannot pass down his title to his. Similarities Between Macbeth Lady Macbeth – Essay.
Even Macbeth does not dare to call upon the devil and evil spirits to kill his emotions to, free him of all capacity to feel, to empty him of all remorse. However Lady Macbeth did this and persuasive speech essay on alcohol, hence she proves that she has an ambition infinitely more vaulting than Macbeth. Though Lady Macbeth’s ambition may be more vaulting than Macbeth’s, both share the same purpose to usurp the crown and use it for their own evil means: “If it were done when ‘tis done, ‘twere well it were done quickly”. It is here. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, a Dealike Butcher and book report school, a Fiend? Essay.
a strong evidence of Macbeth acting out of his fear that the prophecies of the persuasive on alcohol witches were to come true. Though he thinks that murdering the king is a seriously bad sin that cannot be forgiven, Macbeth’s wife has very different ideas. Essay Questions For Efl. She believes that Macbeth is to kind hearted and loyal to carry out the deed. Persuasive. ‘Yet do I fear thy nature; it is too full o’ the milk of System Software human kindness to catch the nearest way: thou wouldst be great; art not without ambition; but without the persuasive essay on alcohol illness should attend it.’ She apprehends that it would be better to report elementary school get the crown through truth and not doing the deed, but that. The Development of Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Macbeth worries about the consequences of DuncanA’s death. Religion and speech on alcohol, the consequences of book elementary sin were very important in ShakespeareA’s time, he speaks about the natural order of life on heaven and earth being ruined he uses alliteration in, A‘trumpet- tongued against the deep damnation of his taking off. And pity like a naked newborn babeA’ to persuasive speech on alcohol emphasise the imagery of anarchy in processor paper, the heavens, he also uses the simile because there is nothing more pure, innocent and helpless. Macbeth: Describe Macbeth as a Tragic Hero Essay. milk of human kindness (Act 1, Sc 5) Lady Macbeth acknowledges that he has ambition but maintains that he lacks the evil that should attend it.
Furthermore, Macbeth yearn for the crown but would as though he is riding high on the crest of the wave and endures the potential to furthur but his flaw of incessant kindness prevents his yearning. It is those strong brave qualities that rise him high in not play foully for it. It is society and Lady Macbeth wishes he would apply them appropriatly. Their. Macbeth And Lady Macbeth, A dealike Butcher And A fiend?
Macbeth is portrayed as a brave soldier. Phrases such as Valour's minion, which means servant of courage and Bellona's bridegroom, which means the husband of persuasive war gives out a sense of Macbeth's superheroism. Essays Thomas. Macbeth and speech essay, Banquo are also described by the captain as eagles and lions unafraid of the opposing army, who were compared to sparrows and hares. About Essay. The witches made a prophecy that Macbeth was to become Thane of Cawdor, and eventually king of Scotland. It was only after the first prophecy. Macbeth is not a Hero in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth Essay. man to have had so much blood in on alcohol, him? (314). Report School. When Macbeth becomes conscious of her hopeless condition he shows no pity or love. He becomes angry with the doctor as to why he cannot cure her, however he never shows any further interest of her condition. When made aware of her suicide, he expresses no grief, claiming that it was inevitable. She should have died hereafter; There would have been a time for persuasive speech essay, such a word (320).
Furthermore, Macbeth is not a tragic hero because he does not achieve. Essay about Supernatural in Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - Witches and essay questions for efl students, Macbeth. in Best). Although he is not made physically impotent, Lady Macbeth challenges her husband's manhood by being more aggressive than he is, taunting him, and suggesting, When you durst do it, then you were a man(1.7.55). Persuasive Essay. Secondly, Lady Macbeth calls upon seemingly malevolent . spirits/ That tend on mortal thoughts (1.5.40-41) to aid her in her plot to overcome her husband's reluctance and to force him to kill Duncan. Although devotedly loyal, she rejects her subordinate role as wife. The Change of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Play. Macbeth’s unwillingness shortly vanishes as he becomes “settled”, in spite of his guilt, and chooses to commit the crime of murdering the System Software king.
Immediately prior to the murder, however, Macbeth experiences a “fatal vision” when he sees a dagger before his eyes and asks the infamous question “is this a dagger I see before me?” The hallucination is “a dagger of the mind, a false creation” and the first of many to come in essay, which Macbeth’s subconscious guilt is expressed. An. Essay about The Images and Imagery of Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Mr. Kenneth Muir, in his introduction to the play - which does not, by the way, interpret it simply from this point of view - aptly describes the cumulative effect of the imagery: The contrast between light and darkness is part of a general antithesis between good and quotations about life, evil, devils and angels, evil and persuasive, grace, hell and heaven . . . and the disease images of IV, iii and in the last act clearly reflect both the evil which is a disease, and Macbeth himself who is the disease from which his country suffers. Both Macbeth and new york times essays thomas, Lady Macbeth are striving towards masculinity. The importance of masculinity to persuasive speech both of them is an students, issue of power.
Lady Macbeth aspires to be a man so that she can show supremacy and be more of a ruler. Macbeth has a mental struggle with his masculinity, mostly because Lady Macbeth convinces him of killing Duncan to become king. Because Lady Macbeth cannot really become a man, she has to work vicariously through Macbeth, making him become king. To control Macbeth, she must use his. the honourable and innocent side of Macbeth attempted to alert his mind that the actions that he was planning to persuasive speech on alcohol take are wrong and will only result in negative consequences. Lady Macbeth plays an important role in this play because she provided a scheme which caused Macbeth to assassinate King Duncan. After Macbeth had killed King Duncan, he later regrets on his wrong doing, he feels an immense amount of guilt and sorrow for what he has done but Lady Macbeth on the other hand, proceeded to alter. These consequences start to affect Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, Macbeth is forced to cover up his wrongdoings, by first killing King Duncan's chamberlains who are blamed for the murder of times 2004 thomas King Duncan.
I am in blood stepped in essay, so far that … returning were as tedious as go o'er. This quote indicates that Macbeth has gone too far to stop in his bloodthirsty ways. Banquo's murder and System Software, the failed murder of his son soon follow once Macbeth fears the truth could be exposed which is persuasive on alcohol, one of Macbeth's first. The third witch says that Macbeth will be the king. This is times thomas, probably the most important part of the prophecy. The three witches and persuasive on alcohol, the three parts of the prophecy show the write an expository essay the attractions of a wickedness and evil that is to come. The three witches are similar to the three Fates from Greek Mythology. Therefore, this prophecy could be false.
The witches also seem to always appear in stormy, weather. They also appear at times where Macbeth has to make choices. After Macbeth got his prophecy Banquo also got his. terrible thing bound to speech essay happen to System Software you. And that?s exactly what happens to speech Macbeth.
All of school this killing could've been avoided if Lady Macbeth hand't pushed Macbeth into killing Duncan in the first place, I believe it was all her fault, being Thane of Cowdor just wasen't good enough she had to be the most powerful person in Scotland under the king, Macbeth. On Alcohol. She was greedy for more. What happens in the end was the death of Macbeth. He was brutally killed by Macduf, the commander in chief of the english. Introduction to processor research paper Research Methods Essay. Lecture 01: Introduction to essay Business Research 15 ? EVERYTHING and ANYTHING that have no answers can be researched ! Lecture 01: Introduction to Business Research 16 Why the sun rises from the times 2004 l. friedman east?
Astronomy ? Why plants need water? – Botany ? Why some people don’t like others? – Social (Discrimination) ? Why some workers are more productive than others? - Production ? What makes a consumer buy product A and persuasive essay on alcohol, not B? - Marketing ? Lecture 01: Introduction to Business. fears are less than horrible imaginings” (1, III, 135-139). New York 2004 Essays L. Friedman. When Macbeth says this it shows how the witches predictions had him thinking about killing the king from the very beginning. The witches’ super natural powers are used to tell Macbeth what he wants to essay on alcohol see which is himself being king for his whole life. The third apparition tells Macbeth “Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no more who chafes, who frets, or where conspirers are. Macbeth shall never vanquished until great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane. Now that Macbeth has been utterly corrupted, Lennox is praying that the English rescue Scotland from their tyrant of times essays a leader. Lennox describes Macbeth as having “a hand accursed” showing that any respect that he had for essay, him has now vanished. Macbeth has shed all of his supporters and has put the country that he once longed to rule in terrible suffering. Quotes with context only: 1. Act 5 Scene 1 Lines 75-77 Context: The doctor sees firsthand the sleepwalking, and talking, and crying that.
Macbeth Text Response-This Deed, the Murder of King Duncan, Has Unanticipated Consequences for Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Discussed. scene 7, pg 28 lines 14-16). Processor Research Paper. However, when Lady Macbeth reproves him for his cowardice, he responds, “I dare do all that may become a man/ who dares do more is none’ (Act 1, scene 7, pg 29 lines 50, 51), and he is convinced to go through with the persuasive essay on alcohol plan. On the an expository essay explains the attractions of a particular night of the assassination, Macbeth sees an imaginary dagger, leading him to Duncan’s chamber; the essay path to his destiny. He commits the murder and new york essays l. friedman, return to his chamber where Lady Macbeth is waiting for him.
They both return back to persuasive speech essay bed. The Role of the Supernatural in Macbeth Essay. arrangement with the witches to meet them at the 'Pit of new york times 2004 essays thomas l. friedman Acheron' (a river in persuasive, hell) to tell Macbeth his destiny 'And at the Pit of Acheron - Meet me I'th'morning'. She feels Macbeth has become too confident and promises to use witchcraft to ruin him 'he shall spurn fate, scorn death, and bear his hopes 'bove wisdom, grace, and fear'. Processor. The supernatural is also embraced by Lady Macbeth when she calls upon persuasive speech, evil spirits to aid her in killing Duncan. The speech includes a. Essay on Established Government in 2004, #x27;Macbeth#x27; steady decline of persuasive on alcohol mental health. He says, But whererfore could not I pronounce Amen? (Act2.Sc3.39-39) describing his belief that his tormenting guilt is the result of life his exclusion from God's grace. Nature in Macbeth is often related to God, and there are many examples of God's anger. Persuasive Essay. Macbeth describes Duncan's dead body, saying And his gash'd stabs look'd like a breach in processor research, nature / For ruin's wasteful entrance (Act2.Sc3.113-114).
And in the description of the night of essay on alcohol Duncan's death: Ah, good father. Uncontrolled Ambition in Macbeth Essay. Despite this belief, Macbeth ends up agreeing to kill Duncan. From the following, we learn that Macbeth himself strongly desires power on the border of the obsessive as it impairs his own judgement and corrupts it. It essentially motivates him to towards something immoral and treasonous, taking control of his own actions. System Software. After the killing of Duncan, he stews in paranoia and lives in constant fear because of his defiance, proving that it does not offer anything pleasantry. Next, after the murder. Essay on Importantce Of The Witches In Macbeth. Thane of Cawdor! / All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter!” (I. iii. 50, 51).
The witches did plant the glory of being king in Macbeth’s head, yet it was his own ambition that led to the murder Duncan. The witches have no control over speech essay Macbeth. They can tell the future, and add temptation, yet in the end, it was Macbeth’s final decision to kill Duncan. Macbeth was not strong enough to resist the enticing glory, and he succumbed to report elementary the temptation. Macbeth was leery of the prophecy, yet. the woman did not share chestnuts with her (Shakespeare 1.3.101-104). Before the witches speak to Macbeth, Shakespeare shows us how easily the witches can decide to make one’s life miserable, and that they are masters at plotting and scheming. The witches enjoy meddling with people’s lives. Speech Essay. This is shown in Act Three when Hecate is speaking to the witches and speaks of “trade and traffic with Macbeth/In riddles and affairs of death” (Shakespeare 3.5.1453-1455). It is out of Macbeth’s control that. Macbeth enters carrying a bloody dagger.
Macbeth said he has done the deed and if she had heard a noise. Lady Macbeth then reply that she heard the owl scream and the crickets cry didn’t you say something? Lady Macbeth said that she heard Macbeth speak while he was coming down. Write An Expository That Explains Place. Macbeth then asks who’s sleeping in the second chamber. Lady Macbeth says Donalbain and speech, Macbeth looks at his hand saying this is write essay explains the attractions place, a sorry sight. Lady Macbeth told him that that’s a stupid thing to say.
I’m guessing Macbeth. Essay on William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. The witches recount to persuasive essay on alcohol Macbeth three prophecies; that Macbeth will be thane of Cawdor, Thane of Glamis and King. These prophecies introduce Macbeth to ideas of greatness, but ultimately it is that the attractions of a place, he who has to make his own decisions. The witches could tell the future, they could add temptation and persuasive, influence Macbeth.
They told Macbeth that he could become king so he became impatient and therefore tried to think of ways that he could become king quicker. But the witches cannot control. The Role of Witches in Macbeth Essay. Shakespeare wrote the report elementary play Macbeth for King James I. This was to make sure that Shakespeare would have a future of writing plays for the king. He favoured King James belief in the divine right of persuasive essay on alcohol kings by defeating evil in the play and showing that when the System Software rightful king was killed it was unnatural and made unnatural things happen. The language used in the play is not as we would speak today. It is a lot more complex. On Alcohol. “if chance will have me king, why chance may. Blood is also used to display the guilt in Lady Macbeth near the end of the play. Throughout the an expository essay that explains place play, Lady Macbeth is the one who tries to keep Macbeth sane and to keep from breaking. She tells him that he is persuasive speech, a man and new york 2004 essays thomas, things around that nature to persuasive speech essay try and help him stay in control of himself. Lady Macbeth seems to accept Macbeth's actions, not showing any sign of write an expository essay that remorse or guilt until the end when she sleepwalks and tells the persuasive essay story of the murder.
She reveals her guilt by stating, What, will these.
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Alcohol: Is it that bad for you?-Persuasive Essay | Madjanecrazy s Blog
chemical essay An Online Research Center on persuasive, the History and Theory of Anarchism. #147;The Problem of Chemicals In Food#148. Within the past few decades, tremendous quantities of report school chemicals have been introduced into the cultivation and processing of food products in persuasive speech essay on alcohol, the United States. The annual production of bread alone is estimated to essay involve the addition of about 10,000,000 pounds of chemical emulsifiers by thousands of bakers throughout the country.
During the six-year period since the end of the war, at least 700 to 800 chemicals have been discovered for persuasive essay on alcohol, use in System Software, American food products. These substances cover nearly every aspect of production: from fertilizers and pesticides to substitutes for organic nutrients, preservatives, flavouring and persuasive on alcohol colouring matter, and a legion of processing agents. There are some foods on the market that are almost entirely synthetic; the chemical content in a certain instances has been increased in piece-meal fashion to such an extent that these foods no longer contain the organic contents from which they were originally derived. This is the ad absurdum of chemicals in food; a natural product is converted by the continual addition of chemical materials into for efl a synthetic or near-synthetic product. Often, from the standpoint of public health, no satisfactory reason can be adduced by either the manufacturer or food technologist. The principal motives for speech, chemicals in food arise from reasons of profit and industrial competition.
The use of chemicals in food has, in fact, become so extensive and reckless that mass poisoning is now a real danger to the American population. Instances of essays thomas acute toxic effects have already approached the point of national disasters. In one case, a marketed drug, #145;Elixir of Sulphanilamide#146;, killed over a hundred people before it was tracked down by speech, governmental agencies. In another case, frozen peaches were confiscated which contained a large amount of thiourea. When these peaches were fed to experimental rats by processor paper, the Food and Drug Administration, the rats died overnight. Yet neither governmental legislation nor scientific experimentation has proved adequate to this type of problem. The burden of persuasive on alcohol proof for deleterious chemicals often rests not with the food manufacturer but with the Food and Drug Administration. The government is usually required to System Software show that a chemical is persuasive speech, definitely harmful rather than unnecessary for health and nutrition before it can be prohibited in food production.
Even this task may require fairly long judicial proceedings by an agency that is times 2004 essays l. friedman, understaffed and has access to limited funds. Moreover, scientific standards of persuasive essay toxicity are frequently open to doubt. Essay Questions For Efl Students. Agene, for example, was used for decades in persuasive speech on alcohol, bleaching flour. It was adjudged by chemists and physiologists as harmless until British scientists recently found that dogs fed a diet of 80 per cent. white bread acquired #145;running fits#146;. An equally interesting case is the variance of scientific opinion on thiourea as a preparation which prevents the browning of certain sliced fruits. As late as 1943 this chemical was described as harmless to man. Further study, however, revealed that thiourea acts upon essay, the thyroid gland to inhibit the formation of thyroxin, and may result in the development of persuasive speech thyroid adenomata and tumours of the school liver. Persuasive Speech. Finally, one of the times 2004 essays thomas most remarkable disputes centers around the use of monochloracetic acid.
This acid was first described in on alcohol, a French patent as a useful food preservative more than eighteen years ago. After extensive pharmacologic tests, the use of paper monochloracetic acid was regarded as harmless #145;even in continued daily ingestion by infants#146;. Only after the acid came into fairly widespread usage did reports indicate that this substance irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea and vomiting. Yet Dr. Franklin C. Bing, an eminent authority on persuasive, nutrition and food chemistry, testified that one of the food scientists who originally characterized monochloracetic acid as harmless to human beings, #145;still holds that monochloracetic acid is perfectly harmless and ought to be used#146;. Dr.
Bing recounts the story of new york l. friedman a food manufacturer #145;who wanted to submit a product for consideration by our council [American Medical Association]. He had a little monochloracetic acid in speech essay, his product as a preservative, and write essay explains the attractions place my duty as secretary of the council was to ask him what evidence he had as to its harmlessness, and he brought that in, and I told him I did not think that the council would accept it, and the council did not. And I remember vividly getting a couple of telephone calls from outstanding pharmacologists of this country saying that they thought we were wrong in not giving approval to that particular product#146;. But by far the most fundamental problem of speech essay chemicals in food is the danger of chronic toxicity. Within very recent years, especially during the last decade, chemicals without an immediate toxic effect have found their way into food products. These chemicals may, in the long run, produce incalculable damage to public health.
For damage of this sort, scientific experimentation is extremely complex and processor woefully inadequate, even if the best intentions are kept in mind. Proper control, in persuasive speech, such instances, cannot end with tests on individual experimental animals; they must cover entire generations over fairly long periods of time and at quotations essay village life considerable financial expense. Persuasive Speech Essay On Alcohol. More must be learned of animal physiology than is to-day even faintly suspected by the most eminent biologists in the United States. #145;I have spoken to students many times about the newer knowledge of System Software nutrition,#146; declared Dr. Bing in his testimony to the House Select Committee to persuasive speech essay on alcohol Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Food Products (U.S. Processor Research. Congress), #145;and I use the speech term somewhat glibly, but in the final analysis, I think I would have to admit that we know very little compared to what remains to be found out. #145;Some of the things that we do know are that the body has mechanisms by which it can handle substances commonly or naturally found in food materials, and it may have some difficulty in handling substances which are not naturally found in processor research paper, foods, even though they differ only slightly in chemical configuration. So I should think that any foreign substance, any substance which is speech essay, not found to a fair extent in foods, is open to some suspicion when you take it into System Software the body. In the meantime, the use of chemicals in food #150; tested, for the most part, only for acute toxicity, and this often with extreme superficiality #150; has increased by leaps and bounds. Dr. Bing observes: #145;You can pick up almost any issue of the technical magazines which come to the attention of the chemists in the food industries, and find some little advertisement in them about new emulsifying agents, or something that is a plasticizer, or food improver, as they sometimes call them.
That is a good term, too, which, well, it is written up so that you are intrigued by essay on alcohol, it. And it seems that just as human beings like to take a pill to thomas l. friedman relieve their illnesses or their lack of sense of well-being, so it seems to essay on alcohol be typical of a man in the food industry when something comes along, some problem in technology, he likes to have chemical aids to solve it. That seems to be inherent in human nature, perhaps. So this problem to-day is much bigger and broader than it was fiver years ago, and certainly tremendously increased over what it was ten years ago.#146; Chemical Fertilizers in Agriculture. The danger of chronic toxicity, to-day, arises at a fairly remote point from the industrial processor and an expository place consumer. It beings in agriculture and persuasive essay on alcohol cattle-breeding, with a vast array of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fruit colouring matter, hormones and growth stimuli. These chemicals (some of which are little understood by industrial chemists, still less by physiologists) are allowed to enter into great natural cycles whose ramifications touch upon the processes of life itself. Since natural processes are intricately tied together, an isolated view of the elementary effect that any single chemical has upon life and persuasive speech on alcohol nature is scarcely a basis for paper, knowing how several of these chemicals will react together.
For example, grazing animals, which have received hormones to increase their weight may leave behind chemical traces in speech essay on alcohol, manure long after they have been slaughtered and consumed. How the soil, as well as the public, is affected is essay questions for efl students, little known. If, as often happens, the same area of land is speech, treated with chemical fertilizers and write an expository that explains the attractions of a particular sprayed with insecticides, these substances may very well combine to produce a totally unpredictable effect. Persuasive Speech On Alcohol. The dangers inherent in this problem cannot be overestimated. System Software. Instances are already known where insecticides have so completely saturated the top-soil that cultivation must be restricted to only certain kinds of food.
It is often maintained that insects, not insecticides, and soil exhaustion due to increased population, not chemical fertilizers, are ultimately responsible for the difficulties created by chemicals in food. This may be regarded as a spurious treatment of a very serious social question. More fundamental are the ecological disturbances that profit-minded businessmen have produced throughout the persuasive essay on alcohol American countryside. For decades, lumber companies and railroads were permitted a free-hand in destroying valuable forest lands and for efl wild life. The attendant results are widespread erosion and the removal of many natural enemies of insect life. The normal balances that were responsible for soil preservation and insect control are no longer present in many parts of the United States. At the same time that irreplaceable top-soil is washed into speech essay on alcohol the rivers of the country, it is accompanied by industrial wastes that probably abet the essay for efl multiplication of insects and diseases detrimental to crops.
An equally important social reason for chemical substances in agriculture is the persuasive speech on alcohol historical shift from small- to large-scale farming. For centuries, as far back as the threshold of history, food cultivation remained in the hands of small rural families. The individual farmer who worked the land, whether he was a serf, peasant or yeoman, brought a certain amount of personal interest to agriculture. The care of crops usually fell within the System Software horizon of an individual, who felt himself more implicated in the quality of agricultural food than large-scale absentee land-owners. Speech Essay. Even when social oppression underlay agriculture, the individual farmer who performed the work could not escape the responsibility for the crops he produced. System Software. Much attention, interest and concern were involved in persuasive speech essay, earlier agricultural practices, and the farmer usually took great pride in the quality or food output. Elementary. Fairs, local markets, contests, and finally a real sense of responsibility to the surrounding community often induced the farmer to bring his best efforts to food cultivation. Agriculture in past eras depended upon a material technique that had not changed in many respects for thousands of years. Labour was arduous and famine remained a continual threat.
But the farmer had the satisfaction of knowing that drought, insects and crop diseases were seldom the result of man-made difficulties. Nor has modern science removed many of the natural disturbances that entered into earlier food cultivation. The greatest difficulties of the past were solved when machines or knowledge of persuasive speech ecology, not synthetic chemicals, were brought to the farm. The advances made in soil chemistry and crop rotation during the eighteenth century were based entirely on organic and natural resources. Charles Townshend, for example, taught the English farmer the four-course rotation of wheat, turnip, barley and clover. Bakewell formulated the pragmatic orientation toward the selection and breeding of cattle.
There is about essay village life, no better description of the agricultural advances of the eighteenth than the world #145;husbandry#146;. The rule-of-thumb researches of the period were intent on garnering, rather than substituting for, the persuasive essay on alcohol forces of nature. The #145;conquest of nature#146; meant a rational use of natural resources, not a disruption of the biological processes around man. It can never be too strongly emphasized that every tract of soil and write explains the attractions of a particular place every area of countryside compromises a relatively unique ecological situation. Just as climate, land, vegetation and wild-life may very greatly from one part of the country to another, so every square mile presents in some degree a distinctive balance of natural forces. On Alcohol. Food cultivation by man, which must be regarded as a form of botanical #145;domestication#146; imposed on what was originally virgin and wild land, always threatens to essay that the attractions upset this balance. In many cases, of course, uniform conditions completely outweigh ecological differences, and large-scale farming is not only feasible but even necessary. For the most part, however, successful agriculture depends upon how the farmer adapts himself to the small differences he is likely to persuasive on alcohol find. He must understand not only System Software gross variations in soil, but particularly his own soul as it is on alcohol, affected by the local vegetation, insect and animal life it supports. He must ask himself how far he can interfere in his given situation without causing irreparable damage. This can only come with personal familiarity, with fairly extended experience and understanding.
The farmer must bring not only insight to questions for efl the specific characteristics of his land, but also sympathy, interest, and persuasive speech on alcohol a socially-responsible attitude. With the processor shift to large-scale farming, the emphasis of agriculture changed from the quality to the quantity of food cultivation. This meant that the land was to be exploited like any other resource under capitalism #150; in a drastic and one-sided manner. Persuasive On Alcohol. The #145;success#146; of large-scale, quantitative farming depended upon write explains the attractions particular place, a uniformity of resources, and #145;average#146; in the agricultural situation. Since nature never presents uniformities or averages in such simple terms, they had to be created. To a large degree this task devolved upon chemicals. Thus fertilizers were used to compensate for differences in soil; chemical hormones were employed to essay on alcohol standardize the size of crops; and growth stimuli were discovered to replace the results of variations in climate. The most elementary lessons of particular man#146;s relationships to persuasive essay on alcohol the soil and nature have since been abandoned for #145;synthesis#146; #150; for artificiality not only in agriculture but also in nature. In short, #145;husbandry#146; has been replaced by essay for efl, #145;chemistry#146;.
But just as capitalist farming has #145;created#146; an #145;average#146; agriculture, so it has created an #145;average#146; farm worker. Wherever the farmer has been dispossessed by huge corporate growers, he has also been replaced by rural labourers who view the speech essay intimate problems of System Software crop management with complete indifference. On large estates to-day, #145;farmers#146; often include aviators who spray insecticides, tractor drivers and sales#146; agents; not to mention harvesters who never sow and sowers who never harvest. Persuasive Essay. The division of labour in large-scale farming often precludes a total view of the agricultural situation. Even the agricultural technician, who can provide an over-all view, must change his orientation to meet the needs of #145;average#146; farming. As a result, the complex requirements of co-operation with nature and natural processes are fractured into numerous, unintegrated tasks.
Management is often supplied #150; at least in System Software, motivation #150; from persuasive essay on alcohol, remote heights above, by business interests which include little appreciation for the problems of the processor paper soil. Speech On Alcohol. Demands imposed upon the land are shaped neither by the needs of the public nor by the limits of nature, but by the exigencies of profit and competition. All the essay for efl students gaps in essay, the picture #150; from the variations of the land to essay for efl the indifference of farm labourers #150; are filled by chemicals. Fertilization by organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers plays a decisive part in persuasive, altering various soils for #145;average#146; farming. In making these alterations, a number of new york l. friedman very important principles are involved. Under natural conditions, the fertilization of land by organic materials is a process in the course of which complex substances are broken down into persuasive speech essay simpler plant nutrients. For example, nitrogen in proper quantities is indispensable for plant nourishment. Ordinarily, this element is provided through the well-known #145;nitrogen cycle#146;. When proteins decay, they are eventually reduced to carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, and free nitrogen.
Soil-dwelling bacteria act upon ammonia to produce nitrate compounds that are suitable for plant nourishment. Quotations About Village. When excessive nitrogenous compounds exist in the soil, denitrifying bacteria may reverse the process to produce a suitable balance. Excesses of this sort are no longer a serious issue because animal proteins play a very small part in speech on alcohol, supplying the land with nitrogen. Burial conventions require that a human body shall not be used to further the cultivation of food, and the human body, in turn, consumes the write essay explains particular proteins of cattle that once eventually reached the soil. Essay On Alcohol. But other means exist.
Leguminous plants like beans, peas, clover, and alfalfa support nitrogen-fixing bacteria that use free nitrogen in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the fecal deposits of questions for efl many living animals (including man) are also rich in essay, nitrogen. Report School. In the past, and to-day to a great extent in the Orient, these resources have been carefully husbanded and restored to the land. The major principle behind chemical fertilization is to introduce these simpler nutrients directly, often without intermediate steps through bacteria. By industrially combining atmosphere nitrogen with lime or soda ash, the persuasive essay on alcohol nitrogen-fixation process is performed in the factory instead of in the soil. Phosphates are usually obtained commercially for agriculture by students, treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. In fact the persuasive speech acidulation technique has a wide variety of uses in new york 2004 l. friedman, preparing chemical fertilizers. It often not only supplants the work of bacteria but also brings to the soil a bewildering number of chemicals that are not always necessary for agriculture. The added chemicals often play no role whatever in soil fertility. They either represent residual substances that cannot be avoided because of the acidulation technique itself, or at best they are added to essay on alcohol render inorganic fertilizers soluble or absorbable. Often, they remain in the soil where they do nothing for plant nourishment as such, accumulating over the years to serve no special purpose for agriculture.
Do these new accretions harm the soil? Do they play any role in human health? Generally speaking, is enough known of the effect of book report elementary school chemical fertilizers have on the soil or on the human body to lend inorganic fertilization to speech on alcohol adequate controls? Behind each of these questions are even more obscure problems. During the hearings of the Select House Committee, for example, Mr. J. I. Rodale of the #145;Soil and System Software Health Foundation#146; suggested the complexities that are introduced by inorganic fertilizers as part of his objections to such fertilizers. #145;In some cases they (chemical fertilizers) are caustic. They actually have a burning quality that will kill bacteria. In other cases they are too soluble.
It is as if an individual were forced to persuasive speech eat when he were not hungry. It forces itself on the plant, crowding out important trace mineral elements. #145;The most important reason why some chemical fertilizers are harmful,#146; continued Rodale, #145;is because they contain more than one element. The one element that they need to quotations life feed the persuasive essay on alcohol plant in order to make it soluble is tied in with some other element which gives it that solubility and which is there practically only for that purpose. #145;An example is a very common fertilizer called superphosphate. What they are after is to feed the plant phosphate. But is about village life, it mixed with sulphuric acid to give it that solubility. The plant takes up a great deal of phosphate but very little of the persuasive speech essay on alcohol sulphur.
When sulphur piles up in the soil there are certain kinds of bacteria, called sulphur-reducing bacteria, which begin to multiply to work down that sulphur. As they work they have to feed. It so happens that those sulphate-reducing bacteria feed on a very important soil organism, which is needed to break down organic matter. Times Essays Thomas. Therefore when you have a lot of on alcohol sulphur piling up in the soil there are bacteria multiplying which are killing off certain organisms which the farmer needs to break down organic matter.#146; This problem, which was first introduced because of the acidulation technique, reaches even further back. #145;When you grow a crop of anything,#146; concludes Rodale, #145;that root that remains in book report elementary school, the soil must break down for the next crop. The roots are very valuable. The roots of the preceding crops give nourishment to the next. If the soil does not contain enough of this breakdown bacteria it will not be able to furnish the food in time for persuasive speech essay on alcohol, the next crop.#146; Rodale#146;s testimony may be regarded as a very unorthodox view in processor paper, the United States. It was opposed at the hearings by a battery of #145;experts#146; who vehemently argued for chemical fertilizers, #145;judiciously#146; mixed with organic substances.
Although the persuasive #145;experts#146; freely acknowledged that organics keep the soil friable, easy to work and permeable to water, they pointed up transport difficulties and, in fact, the entire arrangement of modern society as objections to processor research paper supplying the land with enough organic materials for agriculture. #145;It is neither economically feasible nor physically possible to rely upon persuasive essay on alcohol, organic manures exclusively in our present-day agriculture,#146; observed Dr. Richard Bradfield of Cornell University, who particularly tried to place inorganic fertilizers in perspective from the quotations about essay specialist#146;s standpoint. #145;Organic gardeners make a great deal of what they call the #147;law of returns#148;, by which they mean the return to the soil of all the persuasive essay elements which the crop removes from it. Such a system is feasible in a primitive, sparsely populated area in which practically the entire population is engaged in farming, and in which there is processor paper, a high proportion of the population which can collect and persuasive essay transport city wastes to the farms which feed the essay questions for efl students cities. If we stopped to think for a minute, it would become apparent how difficult it would be to essay apply this law literally in the United States at times 2004 essays thomas the present time.#146; In support of inorganic fertilizers, Bradfield insisted that such fertilizers supply elements in the same form that they are released by essay, organic substances. In fact he found organic fertilizers of very limited value because #145;the organic matter which is generally available for use on soils does not contain these elements in the proportions in which they are needed to give the best growth of crops on most soils.#146; Now we may reserve the social problems raised by the exclusive use of organics for later discussion. But Bradfield#146;s unfavourable comparison of organic with inorganic fertilizers may be regarded as resting on entirely spurious premises.
Dr. A. F. Essay For Efl. Camp, Vice Director in charge of the University of Florida Citrus Experimental Station makes the observation that #145;the difference between trees fertilized with organic fertilizers and those fertilized with chemical fertilizers lay primarily not in the field of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium but in essay on alcohol, the lack of the so-called minor or secondary elements such as magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, and boron which were present as impurities in quotations essay village, the organic materials but not present in appreciable amounts in the chemical materials. Thus, in the case of bonemeal which was credited with containing only nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium, it was found that one of the most important elements it supplied was magnesium which is universally deficient in Florida citrus soils and for which citrus trees have a very high requirement. Superphosphate contained only traces of magnesium and speech essay when substituted for an expository essay that explains the attractions of a particular place, bonemeal resulted in trees that were acutely deficient in magnesium. All of these so-called minor elements which are actually as necessary to the development of citrus as the so-called major elements were found as sizable impurities in the natural organic materials because, just as in citrus, they were necessary to the growth or development of the organisms from on alcohol, which these organic materials were derived#146;. Indeed, it hardly tells us much to new york 2004 essays thomas criticize the efficacy or proportions of organic fertilizers that are #145;generally available#146;. Persuasive Speech On Alcohol. What is #145;available#146; has a very restricted meaning in the lexicon of experts to-day.
To the average farmer, organic fertilizers are almost completely represented by manures, which are admittedly a limited source of about essay village soil fertility. Even if we include the best composts in use to-day (and this being exceptionally generous) the term #145;organic fertilizer#146;, as it is currently employed, would ignore a wide range of speech essay on alcohol potentially valuable substances which could be brought to the soil. For Efl. Curiously enough, the #145;experts#146; carry the greatest responsibility for this situation. They have almost completely evaded, and directed attention away from, research into speech on alcohol new and better organics. Indeed, the current emphasis on inorganic fertilizers in agricultural laboratories and projects has reduced organic substances to an #145;indispensable#146; but entirely ancillary position in food cultivation. Bradfield went on quotations essay, to deny that #145;valid evidence exists#146; to show that #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizer are more attractive and nutritious to insects and plant pathogens#146;. This too will be discussed elsewhere.
His denial, however, that evidence exists as to whether #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizers are less nutritious to persuasive essay men than those grown with organic fertilizers#146; is System Software, extremely questionable. Slowly and in the face of extreme hostility from the #145;experts#146;, a number of soil scientists and practical farmers are producing evidence that inorganic fertilizers may seriously reduce the quality of persuasive speech on alcohol crops. The discussion is still being cast in a strictly adaptive framework, as part of new york l. friedman a general reconciliation to the use of chemicals. It is widely accepted that the contemporary social scene renders the use of inorganics necessary and essay on alcohol few are willing to abandon chemical fertilizers as such. System Software. But, as Dr. K. C. Beeson pointed out, #145;Fertilization with large quantities of nitrogen can also result in persuasive speech on alcohol, some lowering of certain nutritive constituents in the plant. For example, in some experiments with turnip greens, applications of nitrogen reduced the System Software percentage of calcium in the greens in twenty-four to thirty experiments. Fertilization with the ammonium salts of nitrogen has resulted in a reduction of vitamin C in plants, but fertilization with the nitrates under the same conditions did not affect vitamin C. The reasons for the difference are unknown.#146; Perhaps the most strongly emphasized point made by all the persuasive essay #145;experts#146; in favour of inorganic fertilizers is the conclusion that chemicals increase crop yield. #145;The most important reason for essay, the use of fertilizers,#146; said Bradfield, #145;is that they increase the yield of persuasive practically all crops on all but our most fertile soils. This point is an expository essay that the attractions place, so generally appreciated that detailed elaboration is unnecessary#146;.
Very well, then #150; let us elaborate! By leaning on poorly-evaluated experimental facts, the #145;expert#146; generally knows that the addition of speech essay on alcohol certain chemicals to the soil can increase the times 2004 size of essay on alcohol crops. Although impressive yields can be produced, more and more evidence has appeared to show that these yields often drain the soil of valuable substances. Dr. William A. Albrecht of the University of Missouri astutely observed at the Hearings that #145;a fertilizer balancing the supply of nutrients in the soil is merely a help to take all the other things out faster. So if you fertilize a soil with nitrogen, which is deficient, and grow a bigger crop, you merely have taken all the other things out faster and by virtue of that observation people will say, #147;Oh, yes, fertilizers ruin your soil#148;. L. Friedman. Well, they have just helped you wear it out faster. That is all.#146;
But is persuasive essay on alcohol, that all? #145;We have built up the lime, the phosphorous, the potash,#146; continues Albrecht, later in his testimony. #145;Now we come along and shove under the nitrogen and that is very demonstrative for the first year or second year until we pull the other things down. We had the same thing with limestone. The moment we build up the one thing that is deficient, we get a glorious effect until something comes in as a deficiency, and then we are in trouble. . . . Lime is System Software, a necessity but like alone is speech essay on alcohol, not enough. Many years ago the farmer, who did not know any chemistry, gave us a very interesting jingle which is very true: #147;Lime and lime without manure make father richer but son poorer.#148; #145;A very find old truth, very fine, because when you lime, the calcium next to the hydrogen serves to push the other things out. So when you lime, a crop gets greener and a crop gets bigger, but not because the for efl lime did that in the crop but because it pushed out other things and speech on alcohol balanced up the thing to help it.#146; Before chemicals can replace organic substances without leading to disaster, more must be known of the factors which enter into soil composition, of the soil itself and finally of plant and animal nutrition; in short, of a stupendous natural process concerning which agronomists know surprisingly little.
The soil, as Dr. Beeson has put it, is #145;a highly complex dynamic system of minerals, inorganic chemical compounds, organic compounds, living organisms, air and water#146;. Yet soil cannot be synthesized in the laboratory; and entire areas of research plant nutrition, including photosynthesis, remain a complete mystery. In fact, as Beeson tells us, #145;There is no known laboratory method or group of methods by which all the nutritive constituents in food can be measured and evaluated in persuasive essay on alcohol, terms of the nutrition of man or animals. Consequently, there is no single unique value that can be assigned to a food to express its nutritive quality. All of the constituents contributing to nutritive quality have probably not yet been recognized, and there are no adequate methods for quantitative measurement of many constituents that we do recognize. Therefore, no measurement of the over-all nutritive quality of a food has ever been made#146;.
In some cases, soil scientists have even discovered that an element which is unnecessary for plant growth (but which is derived from the consumption of plants) is indispensable to proper animal nutrition. Soil deficiencies of cobalt, for example, have resulted in nutritional disturbances in cattle and sheep. Other of these so-called trace elements are probably even less understood. The point is that whereas the #145;experts#146; tend to break up, simplify and crudely manipulate the agricultural situation, supporters of organic farming usually predicate themselves on research, the complexity and far-reaching character of food cultivation. There is more than a difference in technique. It is a basic antagonism in outlooks toward natural phenomena. Speech. The organic farmer essentially argues that man can know and husband nature, but he cannot replace natural processes without serious detriment to himself and society. Insects, Insecticides and System Software the #145;Human Bug#146; If the rejection of chemical fertilizers rests on the complexity and obscurity of the agricultural situation, there are very direct reasons for regarding other chemicals in agriculture as detrimental to human health.
Perhaps the most significant category of chemicals suspected of being dangerous to man are insecticides and pesticides. Persuasive Essay On Alcohol. The problem that these substances presents is quotations about life, very simple: All are poisonous to one or several forms of lower life. They are employed on the principle that they either do not remain in foods that finally reach the consumer market or that the human body finds them harmless in the amounts that do remain. Speech Essay. Both #145;principles#146; are now open to grave doubts by physiologists and biochemists. The extensive application of insecticides to crops in the United States reaches back before 1870 with the use of Paris Green for the control of the Colorado potato beetle. For Efl Students. Afterwards, a number of extremely toxic chemicals came into use. Lead arsenate, for speech on alcohol, example, was widely employed against the codling moth in apple and pear orchards. Quotations About Essay Village. It is still used to-day, although it has been regarded by many health workers as a danger to agricultural labourers and the public since the first World War. The use of insecticides has now grown to incredible dimensions. With the passage of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of speech 1947, about 16,000 brands of insecticide preparations have been registered with the government. These brands range from poisons absolutely deadly to write an expository essay that place man to very questionable #145;hormone#146; herbicides like 2, 4-D dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. #145;One of the disturbing things about the recent advance in insecticides, in the discovery of new insecticides,#146; said Dr.
Dunbar to the Select Committee, #145;has been that a great many very potent and valuable insecticides have been developed on which very little is known, either about their chronic or acute toxicity or about their fate after they are applied to food. #145;In many cases we do not know whether the speech on alcohol insecticide after application is absorbed into the body of the food, whether it is destroyed on weathering, were even insecticides put out for which no chemical method of identification or analysis is known.#146; Many insecticides and pesticides are known in some way to affect higher animal organisms, including man. Hydrogen cyanide, a fumigant commonly used on processor paper, grains and persuasive speech on alcohol cereal foods, is described by an expository explains particular, a Food and Drug official as #145;moderately to persuasive speech on alcohol extremely poisonous; however, under normal conditions of use the fumigant volatilizes so that no significant [ ! #150; L.H.] residue remains on the food products and no hazard results to the consumer. An exception [ ! #150; L.H.] occurred several years ago when a large shipment of raisins on the docks in one of the seaport cities was repeatedly fumigated with liquid hydrogen cyanide under conditions which prevented volatilization of the fumigant.
These raisins were distributed and resulted in numerous illnesses to consumers#146;. We may very well wonder how many digestive illnesses reported to essay questions for efl doctors throughout the country are due to unsuspected poisons in speech essay on alcohol, food that were not discovered by the Food and Drug Administration. It is maintained by may #145;experts#146;, that when insecticides are produced from times 2004 essays thomas l. friedman, simple compounds they can be washed away and kept from directly affecting the public. This, however, is by no means universally accepted; on the contrary, it is believed that residues usually remain or are absorbed by the crops. According to persuasive speech essay Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory (University of Florida), arsenic #145;in the form of copper arsenate or lead arsenate is commonly used as an new york 2004 essays thomas l. friedman, agricultural insecticide and fungicide. It has been known for many years that exposure to persuasive essay arsenicals produces a certain type of cancer of the for efl skin. More recent evidence is that inhalation of persuasive speech on alcohol arsenic dust #150; and sprays #150; may cause cancer of the lung. It is possible that other types of internal cancer may be caused by the long-continued ingestion of so-called non-toxic doses of arsenicals. It is suspected that the processor research arsenicals used in growing tobacco contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer among heavy smokers. Persuasive Speech Essay. Arsenical sprays on tobacco and questions students food should be prohibited#146;.
Another #145;simple#146; chemical (indeed, an element) that has come into widespread use against insects is selenium. Experimental study by the Food and Drug Administration indicates that selenium and its compounds #145;are highly toxic and are capable of producing insidious poisoning. When as little as three parts of selenium (in the form of selenized corn) was added to each million parts of the persuasive essay on alcohol diet of rats, it produced liver disease (cirrhosis) in the majority of the animals within a year. Higher concentrations eventually produce liver tumours in book school, some of the animals. All these factors combine to make selenium extremely dangerous as a food contaminant. Minute amounts of it (at least in animals) can initiate a sequence of pathologic changes, the speech essay on alcohol earliest of which are symptomless and paper pass unnoticed, while the later stages are irreparable and ultimately fatal. These facts combined with our conviction that the on alcohol use of research paper selenium-containing sprays could be avoided, have been the basis of our reluctance to persuasive essay on alcohol set any tolerance whatever for selenium residues on fruit#146;. In 1942, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a series of book experiments and studies to persuasive speech on alcohol ascertain the extent to which ordinary packing house washing removed selenium from oranges, and the degree to which this substance accumulated in write an expository that explains particular place, the soil after repeated usage. The conclusions of this study, which covered a period of several years, is remarkable. #145;Washing as ordinarily practiced removed little or none of the selenium,#146; dryly observes a memorandum of the agency to the Select Committee. Speech. #145;Soil in groves with a history of repeated spraying showed a selenium level ten or more times that of an expository essay that explains place unsprayed groves, and the flesh of oranges grown on the soil showed the same selenium level as above, even though no spray had been applied to this crop.#146; As of the hearings, however, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to remove this substance from the market. Even State agencies, with whom the Administration discussed the insecticide on 17th January, 1950, were of the opinion that a selenium product was #145;necessary under certain conditions to control mites#146;. As the development of insecticides continues, ever greater dangers to public health are being produced.
Perhaps one of the persuasive gravest hazards arises from write an expository explains the attractions place, recent insecticides developed around hydrocarbons #150; the essay on alcohol organic insecticides like the chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated camphene, etc.), the organic phosphates (parathion, etc.), and System Software so on. Since these insecticides are fat soluble and chemically stable, they are readily retained in body fat. The human body can acquire parathion, DDT and similar hydrocarbons from any number of vegetables, fruits, milk, and even the flesh of sprayed fowl and essay on alcohol cattle. No limit has been agreed upon by book, the #145;experts#146; on how much of these substances can accumulate in the fat of the organism. Indeed, aside from the fact that insecticides can be intrinsically harmful, it may be supposed that the hydrocarbons are especially dangerous because they may enter the speech blood steam in larger quantities precisely during illness, when stored fat is being released by the body to resist infection and disease. According to an article by W. A. Brittin, head of the food laboratory of the Beech-Nut Packing Co.: #145;These organic insecticides reached the market for general use before adequate information was available on the acute or chronic toxicity of the chemicals involved#133; with the exception of one or two insecticides, methods of analysis were lacking which were specific for these various organic spray residues.#146; When chlordane was introduced for use in agriculture, for example, one manufacturer described the insecticide as being half as toxic as DDT.
Afterwards, the belief was expressed in sales literature that chlordane #145;is among the paper safest of all available organic insecticides#146;. According to Dr. Miller, one of the members of the Select Committee, chlordane sprays were even available in essay, drug stores for write explains particular, household use. If we are to persuasive essay on alcohol accept the opinion of Dr. Lehman of the Food and Drug Administration, however, the truth appears to be that #145;chlordane is System Software, one of the most toxic insecticides we have to deal with#133; First of essay on alcohol all, it penetrates the skin very readily. Therefore, anyone handling it could be poisoned. Or of it is used as a household spray, the potential hazard to living in these houses is quite great because of the ability of chlordane to penetrate the skin and because of the volatility of the insecticide and report elementary the possibility of poisoning by inhalation.
More to the point is that it is very toxic to the liver and kidneys of an persuasive, individual. As an over-all picture, to use DDT as a yardstick, I would put chlordane four to five times more poisonous than DDT.#146; Yet at the time that the Food and quotations about essay Drug Administration conferred with a manufacturer of this substance, (23rd September, 1947) it was reported that 700,000 pounds of chlordane had been sold, and another company had sold approximately 300,000 pounds. When Lehman was asked if chlordane was employed extensively as an insecticide he replied that #145;based on poundage it must have been quite widely used#146;. Thus far, to the knowledge of persuasive on alcohol this writer, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to prevent its continued sale to food growers. Parathion is another organic insecticide that came into wide use fairly recently. It has already caused the death of some nine people, one of whom was spraying tobacco and another citrus fruit. Although Dr. Lehman believes that this insecticide is #145;quite safe for report school, use#146; and that no #145;evidence#146; exists to show it is harmful to persuasive essay on alcohol consumers eating foods sprayed with parathion, he was obliged to make the following judgement: #145;Parathion is quotations about essay village life, a liquid.
It penetrates the skin. It is very poisonous. Very small amounts will produce fatal poisoning.#146; This order of opinion #150; that a substance is #145;very poisonous#146; but no #145;evidence#146; exists to show that it will harm consumers when used on crops #150; is often the most favourable response that can be elicited from governmental agencies like the Food and persuasive speech on alcohol Drug Administration. Quotations About Essay Village. But some biochemists and essay on alcohol health workers who are not obliged to maintain an acute sensitivity to the pressure of industry allow themselves less restrained opinions. Dr.
Franklin C. Bing, in conjunction with a committee on book school, food and nutrition, has made the more sweeping observation that, #145;Contrary to previous beliefs, it now seem likely that a substance which is poisonous to one form of life is very apt to be found to some degree toxic for other animals, including man#146;. This observation appears to have received its most striking confirmation with the use of DDT, an insecticide which for years was heralded as completely harmless to man and extremely effective against insects. A considerable literature has fostered the persuasive speech on alcohol belief that DDT is so free of any hazards to human beings that is may be sprayed directly on the body for protection against such parasites as lice. The contrast between these claims and the results of recent research led to a very lively controversy before the processor paper Select Committee. Possibly hundreds of pages of testimony were devoted to the merits as against the dangers of this widely used insecticide.
It is interesting to note that few experts were prepared to maintain that DDT is completely harmless; the dispute actually centred for the most part, on whether DDT, once regarded as without any hazard whatever, is to-day responsible for an epidemic of nervous and speech on alcohol physical disorders! This controversy reached its most acute point in book report school, the testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind, who has devoted himself to persuasive speech extensive research into the pathological symptoms of DDT poisoning. According to write an expository that explains place Dr. Biskind: #145;The introduction for essay, uncontrolled general use by the public of the insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and the series of even more deadly substances that followed has no previous counterpart in history. Beyond question, no other substance known to man was ever before developed so rapidly and spread indiscriminately over so large a portion of the earth in so short a time. This is the more surprising as, at the time DDT was released for public use, a large amount of data was already available in the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for many different species of animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and that it appeared in the milk. At this time a few cases of DDT poisoning human beings had also been reported. These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted#133; DDT is as lethal in repeated small doses as in larger single doses. In low-grade chronic poisoning in animals, growth is about village life, impaired, and the implication of this observation for the growth of children should be given serious consideration.
In rats, tumours in the liver have been produced by low-grade continuous poisoning with DDT. DDT is stored in essay, the body fat and essay questions for efl is excreted in the milk of dogs, rats, goats, and cattle as we have shown, in that of humans, too. Virtually all of these effects have also repeatedly been observed in known DDT poisonings in human beings. The other agents of the DDT group, chlordane, benzene hexachloride, chlorinated camphene, and methoxychlor, so far as these have been reported, also produce serious tissue changes varying in site and degree with the compound. Chlordane is an especially dangerous nerve poison and animals who have received toxic amounts rarely recover even though bodily changes prior to persuasive speech essay on alcohol death do not seem at all alarming. Fortunately in my own limited experience with chlordane poisoning in man, I can report that with stringent avoidance of further exposure and intensive nutritional therapy to help repair the tissue damage, recovery does occur, though this may not be complete. System Software. Benzene hexachloride changes the chromosomes of plants and probably, too, those of animals. The possibility that this agent may adversely effect the persuasive speech essay on alcohol heredity of human beings must be taken into consideration. Already in one report from Europe, seedlings treated with benzene hexachloride were so altered in their heredity that it was suggested that nondegenerated stocks be used for seed subsequently#133; We are dealing with double-edged swords, for the very substances now promoted to increase the size of System Software our crops in the long run turn out to be detrimental to agriculture itself. All these substances and the fantastically toxic parathion, too, inhibit the growth of certain plants, and persuasive on alcohol compounds of the DDT group also persistently poison the soil, so far as present evidence goes, for five or six years and possibly indefinitely.#146;
In the course of his testimony, Dr. Biskind carefully elaborated the symptomology of DDT poisoning. A comparison of these symptoms with alleged #145;virus#146; epidemics in about, many American communities has suggested to him that many of these epidemics may actually result from mass DDT poisoning. Biskind#146;s experience with individual patients suggests that this belief is by no means as reckless as it first appears. Speech Essay On Alcohol. He cites the case (an example among many) of System Software a patient who apparently suffered severe nervous disorders. After repeated examinations and persuasive speech on alcohol tests for two-and-a-half years, he was finally referred to Dr. Book School. Biskind for treatment. #145;When I saw this patient,#146; observes Dr. Biskind, #145;he had an enlarged tender liver, sings of nutritional impairment, reduced ability to feel vibration in his legs and a reduction in his pulse pressure. Speech On Alcohol. Under ordinary circumstances none of these signs, nor all together, could account for his symptoms. When he was advised to give up his job as seek less toxic employment, to remove all traces of DDT and chlordane from his environment, was given nutritional therapy to alleviate the liver damage and put on a diet low in insecticide residues, he showed prompt improvement within a week.
Four months later he was almost free of symptoms. He was then unknowingly exposed to report elementary school DDT in a restaurant kitchen which has just previously been aerosoled with DDT. On Alcohol. Within half-an-hour the entire syndrome returned and essay questions for efl required more than a week to subside.#146; It may be noted that Dr. Biskind claims to be familiar with entire families who exhibit the syndrome of this patient because of DDT. Experimental evidence favourable to DDT ordinarily rests on persuasive essay on alcohol, situations where a group of people are voluntarily exposed to book report a few repeatedly large doses of the insecticide. Since no acute pathological findings are reported by these #145;experiments#146;, it is assumed that DDT is harmless to human beings except in cases of individual sensitivity.
Thus the tendency is to regard all admitted cases of DDT poisoning as exceptional, where an individual rather than a public reaction is at stake. This approach is slowly being reversed by a number of researchers. The public, mass hazards of on alcohol DDT are now being seriously considered because of new and more complete experimental evidence. A considerable amount of information of DDT has been supplied by elementary, the Texas Research Foundation, an independent non-profit institution supported entirely by private business interests. According to Mr. John M. Dendy, head of the analytical division of the foundation: #145;1. All processed milk and meat samples (tested by the Division for evidence of insecticides) were found to be contaminated with DDT. #145;2. The degree of contamination ranged from essay, 3.10 parts per million of DDT in lean meat to 68.55 parts per million in fat meat. In milk the contamination ranged from less than 0.5 parts of DDT per million in 13.83 parts per million. #145;3.
Both corn and an expository essay that explains place sunflowers sprayed with insecticides were found to absorb the chlorinated hydrocarbons in unchanged form. #145;4. The rate of persuasive essay absorption was found to be cumulative, the degree of contamination increasing with each spraying. The extent of times 2004 essays thomas l. friedman absorption in corn ranged from zero parts per speech essay on alcohol million where there was no spraying to 8.11 parts per million after two sprayings with insecticide. Contamination of the sunflowers ranged from zero for no spraying to about village 3.72 parts of insecticide per million after one spraying and 7.40 parts per million after two sprayings.#146; Mr. Essay On Alcohol. Dendy concludes as follows: #145;#133; one of System Software these insecticides [a reference to several organic insecticides tested by the Division, including DDT], when sprayed on a crop such as corn is absorbed by the corn.
The dairy cow or beef cow which feeds on the corn in essay, turn absorbs a portion of the chemical in its fat, and the insecticide is passed on students, to the human being who consumes milk or beef from the animal. In experiments in the laboratories of A. J. Lehman, M. I. Smith, and H. J. Welch, it has already been shown what concentration of speech essay DDT will produce death in about life, test animals. Speech. We know, too, that DDT is absorbed into plant and animal tissues cumulatively. Therefore, we can only conclude that the continued indiscriminate use of DDT and other chlorine hydrocarbons holds an for efl students, ever-increasing hazard to the public health.#146; Later in his testimony, Mr. Dendy points out that, #145;Milk containing small concentrations of DDT has been found by most of the investigators in the field.
Even though the intake is small, the fatty accumulation in the tissues as the persuasive speech on alcohol result is magnified as high as thirty-four times the original intake. In other words, with a diet of ten parts per million you could expect, in some instances, 340 parts per million in the fat#146;. It is interesting to note that Dendy flatly refuses to new york times essays l. friedman acknowledge the adequacy of the tests which either support the persuasive harmfulness or the harmlessness of DDT to human beings. #145;As I see it, in this particular field,#146; he observes, #145;we exposed almost everything to processor research the indoctrination of DDT. As most of you know, in the service we used DDT for everything, and we got home and used DDT with no thought as to its possible effect on the individuals. Yet, as I say, there is no one that has established a truly detrimental effect on persuasive speech on alcohol, the human being to my satisfaction yet. There has been no elaborate human test made yet.
Someone has to authorize, delegate and carry on such experiment, to ascertain whether or not all this wealth of information is going in the wrong direction. We are showing a possibility of mass contamination, but we do not know its effect. We know it has an effect on test animals, we can show that, but we do not know its human effect.#146; Perhaps we have misunderstood Mr. Dendy, but this is the processor research same acme of the positivist method: animals are known to respond adversely, but since no test has been made on man, Dendy is not satisfied that DDT is detrimental to human beings! The real point seems to be that no adequate test has been made to support the harmlessness of the insecticide to the public. In the meantime, DDT is ubiquitous. Persuasive Speech. A recent experiment on the insecticide could proceed only with the quotations about life greatest difficulty because the control rats, which were supposed to be checked against those given DDT, were also found to have acquired the insecticide from their normal environment.
Organic insecticides have been found not only in the fodder, fat, milk and eggs of animals consumed by man but in persuasive speech essay on alcohol, the brains as well. The dangers of DDT to public health have been echoed in that explains the attractions particular place, the reports of Dr. Lehman, who acknowledges under questioning by the Select Committee #145;that the persuasive on alcohol potential hazard of DDT has been underestimated#133;#146; But few remarks sum up the meaning of DDT to the public health more vividly than the following quotation from a British food journal (cited by Dr. Write An Expository That Place. Biskind): #145;Atomic bombs and DDT will be regarded by many as the two most notable scientific developments of the war. They have now been brought together in a more direct and scientific sense by recent British research carried out by the Pest Infestation Laboratory. Persuasive Speech. Radioactive isotopes produced as the System Software Harwell Atomic Pile have been used to study the biological movement of DDT residues#133;#146; After reporting that an insecticide almost identical to DDT has been found in the #145;gizzard, the liver and the kidney, the tissues of the heart and brain, and essay the sciatic nerve fibre#146; of test hens, the report school quotation concludes: #145;These new results give strong confirmation for the view that DDT is speech essay, a hazardous contaminant of animal and life human foodstuffs.
Though in themselves the residues from DDT application may be small, it is clear that they are considerably retained after ingestion. Toxic effects of a harmful if not lethal nature could arise from the cumulative absorption of persuasive essay on alcohol DDT residues.#146; Actually, the book elementary coupling of atomic bombs with organic insecticides as the most noted scientific developments of the war is not a helpful amalgam. Atomic bombs have proved to be very effective in snuffing out human life. It is by no means, assured, however, that insecticides perform a similar function with respect to insects. If we are to persuasive essay accept a number of very remarkable facts brought out before the Select Committee, it would appear that not only do insecticides often fail to provide a long range solution against insects, but they may even result in the widespread appearance of new pests.
It is ironic but apparently true that the use of many insecticides leads to the development of resistant varieties of insects, while producing new pests by destroying their natural enemies. #145;The New York Times last April (1950),#146; claims Dr. Biskind, #145;carried items indicating that because the wheat crop was threatened by green bugs and red spiders, more than 200,000 acres has been sprayed with parathion by airplane. What was omitted from the news dispatch was that the crop was threatened only because prior use of DDT had killed off the normal predators of these two resistant insects, permitting them to flourish uncontrolled. Apparently the remedy for too much poison is still more.#146; A similar situation has been reported by leading entomologists like Dr. Charles E. Palm of Cornell University. #145;As far as the same number of insects,#146; declares Dr. Palm, #145;we probably has most of them before, but we have cases in our own experience where we have some minor pests that have become of major importance #150; I say possibly #150; through the use of insecticides, I think of the book red-banded leaf roller on fruit. It was always a minor problem, and as long as we used lead arsenate for control of the codling moth, it was no particular problem to persuasive essay on alcohol the commercial fruit grower. But there is the possibility that DDT has reduced the for efl students parasites of the speech essay on alcohol red-banded leaf roller as a problem that we have to contend with because we still have to control the codling moth with DDT.
We cannot go back to lead because we cannot do it economically from the viewpoint of codling moth control. So this thing gets a little tighter all the while and the importance increases.#146; This type of problem has become so acute in recent years that there is a tendency for village life, #145;experts#146; to juggle the persuasive speech on alcohol effectiveness of an insecticide against the natural predators of other pests which may also be destroyed. Dr. Processor Research Paper. V. B. Wigglesworth, of the Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England, was obliged to speech essay suggest that #145;an insecticide which kills 50 per cent. of the report school pest insect, and none of its predators or parasites, may be far more valuable than one which kills 95 per cent. Speech. of the pests, but at the same time eliminates its natural enemies.
Perhaps this is where the future of essay that the attractions place chemical insecticides lies, not as a substitute for, but as a complement, to the more subtle and more remunerative methods of biology#146;. The entire meaning of persuasive speech on alcohol insect control by insecticides threatens to be upset by the very consequences of insecticides. Quotations About Essay Life. In an article, appropriately called #145;The Philosophy of Orchard Control#146;, A. D. Pickett of the persuasive speech essay on alcohol Dominion Entomological Laboratory in processor research, Nova Scotia writes #145;that when a chemical is used for some specific purpose, such as the control of a fungus disease, it may increase the survival potential of one or more pests which were unimportant before the spray was applied. An example of this is the essay increase in population of essay students oyster shell scale and European red mite following applications of elemental sulphur#146;. The British have tried to show some moderation in the use of insecticides; the Americans, however, work on the principle that the bug must be bludgeoned#133; or else! The difference in national attitudes reflects itself in the fact that while British #145;experts#146; are thinking of persuasive reducing insecticides and, in some measure, getting nature to new york times work with them, the American #145;experts#146; continually increase the dose of an insecticide as the speech pest grows more and new york times essays thomas more resistant, until complete resistance has been achieved. At the same time, the increased dosage adds to the contamination of food and tends to complete the destruction of speech essay natural enemies, including not only other insects which are helpful to man but also wild life and birds. Insects, to-day, destroy more than $4,000,000,000 worth of thomas l. friedman crops a year. The problem of controlling them, as Dr. Palm admitted, has become more acute and expensive that it ever was in the past.
The one possibility of reducing insect predators, namely by improving plant nutrition, has received very little attention by speech essay, soil scientists. Yet it is an area of investigation that some of the most interesting facts and write that the attractions of a particular place results have been brought to light. During the Select Committee hearings, the American novelist and practical farmer, Mr. Louis Bromfield, frankly stated his belief that the #145;increasing attack by insects and diseases upon our agriculture and horticulture has arisen largely through poor and greedy agricultural methods, through the steady deterioration of speech on alcohol soils and the steady loss of organic material with which nitrogen is closely affiliated, and the increasing unavailability of the l. friedman natural elements though the loss and destruction of soil structures and content. In other words, a sick soil produces a sick and weakened plants which are immediately subject to disease and insect attack. In properly managed soils the necessity for using poisonous preparations injurious to animals and essay people is greatly diminished and in many cases disappears altogether. The general deterioration of most soils in the United States since the first plough entered them is an expository essay explains the attractions of a particular, closely related to the increasing attack of disease and insects and the consequent short-cut use of poisonous dusts and sprays later consumed by humans.#146; Falling back on his extensive experience in farming, Bromfield went on to say: #145;I myself farmed and gardened in France, on persuasive speech on alcohol, land that has been in use for write an expository essay that the attractions particular, 1,200 years, for seventeen years without every using a dust or spray. It was wholly unnecessary because during that time the soil had been properly handled.#146;
According to Mr. Bromfield, the University of Missouri #145;has found that sufficient amounts of the element nitrogen will control the attack of chinch bugs on corn. They found that corn not suffering from nitrogen starvation was simply not attacked by the pests#146;. Similar experiences have been obtained #145;in related to the attack of the green bug on wheat#146; in Kansas. #145;The green bug,#146; observed Mr. Bromfield, #145;does not start on one side of the of the field and persuasive speech essay on alcohol work his way across. They always go to work on the yellowish spot in the field and for efl students they work out in a circle. Persuasive Speech On Alcohol. This yellowish spot is where there is a strong nitrogen deficiency, because they will not attack the deep-green wheat.#146; Bromfield#146;s remarks are a matter of processor research record in the scientific journals and have even received confirmation from workers in the field who still regard the use of insecticides as indispensable to speech agriculture. Chemicals substances are not only introduced into the soil and sprayed on crops, but they are also injected on an ever-increasing scale into cattle and fowl. An extraordinary example was cited by Dr. Clive McCay. #145;As you are aware,#146; Dr. McCay told the System Software committee, #145;some producers of chickens are introducing under the persuasive speech essay on alcohol skin into the neck of the chicken diethylstilbestrol.
Such procedures produce more pounds of chicken from a hundred pounds of feed and increase profits. Processor. When these chickens are slaughtered the necks are cut off and may be fed to foxes and mink. Some of these farms have reported substantial failure in persuasive essay on alcohol, breeding. Now the question arises whether enough of this compound finds its way into the flesh to affect the person who consumes the chicken. #145;The same type of problem arises when meat-producing animals are fed compounds to injure the thyroid so that the basal metabolism of the pig or steer will be lowered and more meat will result from System Software, each pound of feed. Does enough of the compound fed the animal remain in the meat so that the consumer will be injured?#146; Despite a furious attempt by manufacturers of cattle hormones to prove the contrary, some of the most eminent endocrinologists in the United States no longer regard stilbestrol as a #145;problem#146; to be decided upon either favourably or unfavourably. In their opinion, these hormones, and especially stilbestrol, are a great hazard to the public health.
According to Dr. Robert K. Enders, chairman of the Department of Zoology in Swarthmore College, #145;it is against persuasive essay, the public interest to processor research permit its [stilbestrol#146;s] use and persuasive essay sale under present conditions#146;. 2004 Essays. The supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol,#146; observes Enders, who experimented with the hormone for three years, #145;always cite that the drug is used in persuasive speech essay on alcohol, medicine with inference that it is, therefore, harmless. They point out the System Software fact that large doses have been given patients without disaster although they may produce vomiting. They never mention the fact that small amounts, even minute amounts, given over a longer period may give results that differ from those where large dosages are given under the supervision of a physician. Persuasive Speech Essay On Alcohol. Yet the literature shows that extremely minute doses can effectively sterilize and injure laboratory animals where larger doses have no long-range effect (Roberts and Nature). Questions Students. These small doses do not produce vomiting. Nor do the supporters quote a leading endocrinologist who says: #147;#145; In women there is evidence that oestrogens are concerned in the etiology of mammary cancer. Not only does the clinical evidence point to such a conclusion, but now, with the lapse of time, cases are being reported in on alcohol, which cancer of the breast has followed prolonged treatment with oestrogens.#148; #145;Supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol always say that #147;in properly treated fowl#148; there is System Software, no residue or if there is it is discarded with the head or that there is essay on alcohol, no effect of the drug detectable on research paper, humans. Apparently the definition of what constitutes a #147;properly treated#148; fowl and fowl as they reach the market are far from the same thing. Having examined the heads of poultry that has been killed for market, I can assure the committee that a considerable number of chickens contained unabsorbed portions of pellets of the drug#133; What can and does happen is persuasive essay, well illustrated by an examination of caponettes, as sold on the open market.
An expert examined fifty heads from one well-regulated packing house. He found pellets in twenty-six of the heads. Essay For Efl. Eight of the heads showed that pellets had been absorbed, three heads had the appearance of normal cockerels but no evidence of speech on alcohol a pellet or injection site could be found in eight birds. This means that in 16 per cent. Write An Expository That Of A. of the chickens sold the site of speech implantation was in such a place that it was sold with the meat. Even if only had of these had a residue of diethylstilbestrol left, 8 per cent. of the chickens contained large amounts of the chemical which is not destroyed in normal cooking. #145;The reluctance of the trade to quotations about use animal charcoal to mix with the persuasive speech essay on alcohol pellet to mark the site of the injection may be due to about the fact that the site of essay injection may be included in the sale of the fowl.#146; Commenting on damage that stilbestrol can inflict, Dr. Enders warned that #145;one two-hundredth of the dose, that is of a maximum dose, given regularly over a period of time will kill the processor research (experimental) animal.
Now while two one-hundredths of a milligram given over a period of a time will kill the animal, as much as two milligrams given over the same period of time to an animal of the same weight will not kill him. To me that can only speech mean one thing, that small doses are much more toxic than large doses#146;. Enders observes that mink fed with stilbestrol #145;were the poorest mink I have ever seen that were still breathing. That is, they lost their hair, they were fat and puffy, you could put your finger in the skin and dimple it and the skin would not come back, there were scales around the external orifices because something was wrong with the urine, and, as I say, the few survivors were the an expository essay explains the attractions of a place most miserable animals I have ever seen for persuasive speech, animals that were still breathing#146;. The testimony of Enders indicates that large enough doses of stilbestrol will stop ovulation in women, profoundly alter the processor paper blood picture in chickens and cause changes in the reproductive tracts of experimental animals fed on poultry waste shudders at this prospect. Persuasive Speech Essay On Alcohol. Cystic ovaries, paper-thin uterine walls, dead and resorbing embryos follow such use. The drug should not be available except to experimenters and the physician.#146; Dr. 2004 Thomas L. Friedman. Carl G. Hartman, a venerable leader in endocrinological research, gave testimony bearing out some of Dr.
Enders#146; opinions before the Select Committee. #145;Whenever you tamper with one gland you tamper with all the others,#146; he warned. Essay. #145;When the ovaries or the tests are removed, the physiological effect is profound in System Software, the organism. If you give too much thyroid, you injure the ovary or the testes. We have to think of the persuasive body as a whole, and when you have an processor research, excess of one hormone over another you get effects which reverberate with the entire organism.#146; Hartman#146;s testimony was centred around synthetic chemicals that have estrogenic effects, of which #145;stilbestrol is the queen of them all#146;. Persuasive Speech Essay On Alcohol. These estrogenic chemicals not only find their way into meat but also into the cosmetics and homes of millions of System Software women throughout the United States. Persuasive Essay. When Hartman was asked if the estrogenic chemicals destroy the fibrin and fibrinogin in the blood, he replied: #145;I would not be able to essay for efl say as to that, but I do know in the dog, for example, estrogen causes profound changes in the bone marrow where the red blood cells are made. A dog, in on alcohol, three months, will die of asphyxia because it does not have red blood cells enough to go around. In the System Software chicken likewise the blood-forming organs are profoundly effected.#146; Although it is persuasive speech essay on alcohol, reported that the Canadian government plans to prohibit the use of stilbestrol in poultry, the use of this chemical has increased enormously in the United States over times thomas the past two years. #145;The acceptance of the hormonized, or chemically treated birds, by the public has reached national proportions,#146; reports Dr.
Arthur D. Goldhaft, a director of a poultry laboratory that manufactures and distributes stilbestrol. #145;The major markets in American report a substantial increase of sale of this type of poultry meat with an increasing demand for this product. The reaction of the New York City Live Poultry Terminal Market is on alcohol, characteristic. This market records a phenomenal gain in chemically treated birds in school, 1950; in fact, the hormonized birds have practically sounded the death knell of the legions of cross broilers that have been such a standby in the market for the past ten years. In the first ten months of 1950 they have gone from a low of 0.46 per cent. of total receipts #150; less, turkeys, ducks, and geese #150; in persuasive speech, January to 25.77 per new york times 2004 l. friedman cent. in October.#146; We may, perhaps, compare these remarks with the on alcohol reaction of an expository that explains of a particular place Dr. Miler, a member of the Select Committee, to the report of Dr. Enders: #145;Dr.
Miller. I read your paper last night and I had to speech on alcohol take an report elementary school, aspirin after dinner last night, I could not sleep. It disturbed me for a while. It was disturbing to think what it may do to the human race. Dr. Enders. That is what I say, the vegetarians may inherit the on alcohol earth.#146; Dr. Enders expressed agreement #145;with those endocrinologists who say that the use of the drug to fatten poultry is an economic fraud. Chicken feed is not saved; it is merely turned into fat instead of protein. Fat is abundant in quotations about village, the American diet so more is undesirable.
Protein is what one wants from poultry. By their own admission it is the improvement in appearance and increase in persuasive, fat that makes it more profitable to the poultryman to use the drug. Processor Paper. This fat is of very doubtful value and is in no way the dietary equal to the protein that the consumer thinks he is paying for#146;. The truth is that even more is involved. The use of hormones in cattle and fowl, including thyroid depressants like thiourea (a drug that was already prohibited by the government for one purpose, only to reappear again for another), suggests a new emphasis on animal weight over animal reproduction. Dr. Albrecht, noting the tendency to ignore the mineral quality of cattle feeds for persuasive essay on alcohol, the carbohydrate and fat content, remarks that the #145;business of fattening cattle and pigs, more than reproducing and growing them, has been the much heralded agricultural success with livestock. In Missouri, the pig crop that goes to market is only 60 per cent. of that delivered by the sow in the litters of pigs at their birth. Quotations About Essay Village Life. Dairy calves at weaning time are only 60 per cent. of the speech essay total conceptions. Diseases of the udder, of the reproductive organs, and others of the dairy cow #150; so baffling to veterinary science as to call for legislation #150; threatening to kill the very animals, are rampant#146;. It seems fairly apparent that the extension of hormones from face creams and cosmetics to stock-breeding and poultry will only serve to reinforce the trend toward carbohydrates which was begun with the improper feeding of cattle.
The use of hormones in research, this connection is still relatively new. But the public may well imagine seven-league strides toward sweeping applications of synthesized pituitary, thyroid and sex hormones if makers of these products have their way. Since the invention of the atomic bomb (and, we may add, DDT), the wits of our time are continually conjecturing on how man will destroy himself. We feel justified in believing that if modern social relations continue, this will occur in stages rather than by persuasive, a single blow. The meat eaters will probably perish first, assuming anyone survives the System Software application of persuasive essay insecticides to agriculture. Essay That Explains The Attractions Particular Place. After the vegetarians take over, most of them will probably die from #145;improvements#146; in new and better insecticides. Persuasive. Those who survive will undoubtedly kill themselves with the atomic bomb and, finally, to complete irony by irony#133;the insects will inherit the earth. Thus far we have examined the quotations essay village life function and #145;possibilities#146; of chemicals in agriculture and stock-breeding. Persuasive Speech Essay. Now, we shall attempt to accompany our product #150; sprayed by poisons and injected with hormones #150; to the next great stage: the processing of students food products for essay, the market. Before, we were occupied with agriculture; now, we are concerned with industry.
But since agriculture simply reflects industry to-day, since both are thus oriented toward quantity instead of quality, the reader will not be surprised to learn that the prevalence of commercial over nutritive ends originates in the processing of report foods. In this connection, Dr. McCay assures us, we are guided by a great tradition. #145;Since very early times, in the interests of making more profits, men have attempted to introduce chemicals into foods in order to make a cheaper product appear like a better one.#146; In accord with great traditions, let us take the fate of bread. Ecclesiastical literature describes bread as the speech #145;staff of life#146;.
So profoundly has the importance of bread been etched on human civilization that our great divines often contrast the body with the spirit by saying: #145;Man does not live by bread alone.#146; At the very least, this implies that man also cannot live without bread. Book Report Elementary. The implication was true until fairly recently. It is now an open question whether the product which currently passes for bread in the United States is persuasive essay on alcohol, any longer the same food that inspired many earlier sermons, aspirations, dreams #150; indeed, vast historical movements. #145;Bread traditionally was made from flour, yeast and salt,#146; profoundly avers Dr. William B. Bradley of the American Institute of Baking, #145;and that is what it is made from in most countries other than this one.#146; These are memorable words. They may well comprise the last, faint descriptions of the elementary few scholars who still see bread. Indeed, bread seems to be traveling on the road toward extinction, for in this country, at least, it is being made with the addition of speech on alcohol many synthetic substances and students chemicals. Do these chemicals mark any improvement? Do they serve any beneficial function? Perhaps we may answer these questions by contrasting trends in the improvement of speech essay bread with the substances out of which many #145;breads#146; are now made in the United States.
We know what enters into #145;traditional#146; bread. Now a better, more nutritive bread is one to which has been added milk, eggs and or/butter. System Software. In the mental and old-age institutions of New York State, for example, a minimum of six per cent. fluid milk and two per cent. Speech. wheat germ is required for an acceptable bread. This bread, according to 2004 thomas l. friedman Dr. Persuasive Speech. McCay, #145;costs only a half-cent more than the worst#146;. Yet despite the small difference in price, a growing tendency among bakers has favoured the replacement of valuable natural and dairy nutrients by chemical substances that may either be harmful to that explains the attractions of a particular place the public health or may at the very least contain less or none of the nutritive values in persuasive speech on alcohol, the foods they have supplanted. A bad, although commonly used bread, for example, is likely to include bleached flour, softeners or emulsifiers, increased quantities of water, yeast and salt. Dairy products will have been #145;successfully#146; removed.
They way in which wheat is refined and bleached to-day has radically altered the nutritive weight of bread in the modern diet. Research shows that a greater proportion of write essay that explains the attractions of a mineral richness in wheat is to be found in the outer layers of the berry. Yet it is usually this part that is removed for the baking of persuasive essay bread and cake, while the less valuable endosperm is retained. It is perhaps even more interesting to note that natural wheat is book, not as fattening as is essay on alcohol, ordinarily supposed. A pound of red winter wheat has about 1,471 calories.
As a result of milling, however, a pound of extraction flour yields 1,618 calories, an increase of more than 200 calories per pound. For every eight pounds of white bread consumed, the caloric equivalent of a pound of quotations about essay village natural wheat is unnecessarily added to the diet. The outer layer goes as offal to farm animals; the inner layer is persuasive essay on alcohol, sent off for man. The first contains a higher ratio of minerals to carbohydrates than the second. In short, farm animals receive the best portion of the grain while man is stuffed with substances that make for increased carbohydrates and the concomitant physical disorders of a burdened, over-weighted body.
The bread industry in the United States has tended to quotations about become a modern Circe: turning men into swine #150; in appearance if not in speech essay on alcohol, habits. But the problem does not end at book report elementary this point. Persuasive Speech. The remaining berry is often bleached until it is rendered suitable for the production of white bread. To-day this may mean that the System Software berry is persuasive speech on alcohol, subjected to oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, potassium bromate, bitrosyle chloride, benzoyl peroxide or any #145;permitted#146; combination of these chemicals. Are these chemicals harmful?
Will we have to wait for close on half a century (as with agene) to learn that they create disorders of some sort in experimental animals? A number of countries have already answered these questions by simply prohibiting the bleaching of flour. Quotations Life. Indeed, it is unnecessary in persuasive essay, any case to students bleach flour in order to make white bread. When flour is stored and speech essay on alcohol permitted to age, it will turn white naturally. The use of chemical #145;maturing#146; agents arises principally because storage facilities are too expensive, insects have increased as a problem for stored foods generally and quotations essay life contemporary methods of distribution favour quick processing as against traditional techniques. Naturally-white flour is persuasive speech essay, simply unprofitable and essay questions difficult to handle in the present social set-up. Another #145;development#146; in bread is the introduction of emulsifying or softening agents. The typical method for determining whether bread is fresh or not is by feeling it, by #145;playing the speech essay on alcohol piano#146; (as the quotations industry puts it) on the bread rack in retail stores. Until recently, the persuasive essay on alcohol softness of bread and that explains of a particular place cake products was a good index of how long a product had been away from the oven. For the essay most part, the book report elementary degree of softness depends upon the rapidity with which a cereal loses its moisture.
Surface-active materials like natural fats, lecithin in egg yolk, and some plant substances which are in persuasive, themselves valuable to the body will retain air and moisture in write an expository that the attractions of a, grain foods and thus keep these products soft without necessarily keeping them #145;fresh#146;. In this case, the consumer gains in persuasive essay on alcohol, food value what he may have lost in freshness. While this method of keeping bread and cake soft benefits the public, it is expensive and unprofitable to the bread industry. #145;Naturally#146;, a #145;way out#146; of the book elementary school #145;horrible#146; dilemma had to persuasive speech essay be found. Naturally. During the #145;thirties, enterprising researches discovered that chemical surface-active agents like the mono- and diglycerides and essay questions for efl polyoxyethylene monostearates could achieve the desired end. Persuasive Speech Essay. At first, this discovery did not quite revolutionize the baking industry. At the time that emulsifiers were first put forward, observes Mr. George T. Carlin of book report elementary Swift and Company, #145;the bread-softness vogue had not become as pronounced as to-day and we never thought in persuasive, terms of softness in 1937. Research Paper. In fact, we tried to patent their (emulsifiers) use as staling retarders but found our usage patent application had been anticipated by at least ten years#146;.
During the war, however, the emulsifier industry prepared an extensive sales campaign for speech essay, the baking industry until the idea finally began to bear #145;fruit#146;. At this writing, the public how has little choice between breads which contain emulsifiers and those which do not. According to G.F. Gauger of the Purity Baking Company, an estimated 75 per cent. of the bakers in the United States use emulsifiers in bread. The possibilities which emulsifiers have are nothing less than extraordinary. Carlin advises the Committee, for System Software, example, that it is possible to reduce the speech fat in a cake mix from a high of 14 per cent. to essay questions students zero.
The Swift Laboratories #145;have made suitable mixes with 0 per cent. shortening content with the synthetic emulsifier#146;. Not only could the fat content be manipulated at will but #145;the reduction would make a cake that would be perhaps more appealing#146;. Mr. Carlin adds #145;that the egg content of a cake mix parallels the persuasive speech on alcohol fat content. Fat makes a cake tender, eggs make it tough.
In other words, the eggs, the coagulation of the eggs will offset the tendering influence of fat, so when you reduce fat, you may also simultaneously reduce the eggs#146;. #145;Mr. Keefe (Representative from Wisconsin): You would almost have to, would you not?#146; #145;Mr. Carlin: Unless you wished a tough, rubbery cake, you would.#146; If we are to accept the opinion of a number of food specialists, however, the principal danger of certain emulsifiers comes from the physical damage they have produced in processor research paper, experimental animals. Recently, the Swift laboratories subjected some emulsifiers and persuasive essay allied substances to paper toxicological and nutritional evaluation. The experiments centred on the effect which #145;Myrj 45#146; and #145;Sta-Soft#146; (polyoxyethylene monostearate) have on rats, hamsters and rabbits. The results obtained were summarized by Dr. Edward Eagle as follows: #145;. . .Single doses (20 milliliter) of Sta-Soft of essay on alcohol Myrj 45 in rabbits changed the normally cloudy, alkaline urine containing varying amounts of white crystalline precipitate to a clear, acid, precipitate-free urine containing 5.9 to essay for efl 6.5 milligrams polyoxyethylene glycol per milliliter.
#145;The rats fed Sta-Soft showed occult blood in the feces#133; the Sta-Soft rats showed no unusual gross pathology; microscopically, however, they manifested unusual gastric, lymphoid, renal, and testicular involvement.#146; The level used in these experiments were five, ten, fifteen and twenty-five times the amount recommended for use in break and cake. According to Dr. Eagle, this represents a fraction of the essay on alcohol test levels which the Food and Drug Administration advises for chemical substances used in System Software, food. #145;Furthermore,#146; observes Dr. Essay. Eagle, #145;the Food and Drug Administration states in writing, in scientific journals, that in order to prove the non-toxicity of any substance, it has to be fed to animals at a level of 5 per cent. with no harmful effects. These materials cannot be fed to animals at System Software 5 per cent. with no harmful effects#133; There are some people who feed a small dose to a rat, for on alcohol, example, and say that since man, a 70-kilo man weighs 350 times as much as a 200-gram rat, then man can take 350 times as much as a rat can take.
That is very poor reasoning. #145;The best example I think you can give for that is aspirin. The LD-50 (lethal dose which will kill half the number of animals to which the the attractions place dose is administered) for persuasive on alcohol, aspirin is 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. That means about five 5-gram aspirin tablets represents the LD-50 dose for the rat and kills half the animals. If a man weighs 350 times the weight of that rat, then 350 times 5 aspirin tablets is essay questions for efl, 1,750 aspirin tablets, and no one would ever say that a man can take 1,750 aspirin tablets and survive#133;. If you can cause harm to any animal with anything, that material is not good for man, and that is the reasoning behind a good many of the discussions with Food and Drug people. Man is the most sensitive of animals #150; at least, they regard him so #150; so that any material which is toxic to a rat or a hamster or a rabbit is unsafe for man.#146; Independent experiments by Dr. B. S. Schweigert of the persuasive essay on alcohol University of Chicago essentially confirm the results obtained by Dr. Eagle.
Schweigert submits the following summary: #145;The effects of feeding 5 or 15 per cent. of two polyoxyethylene monostearates (trade names Myrj and Sta-Soft) in the diet of weanling hamsters was investigated. Thirty-three animals were used in each group and the growth rate, food utilization, general appearance, gross pathology and histological abnormalities were noted and book school compared to those observed for comparable groups fed 5 or 15 per cent. Persuasive On Alcohol. prime stead lard. The basal diet was designed to be adequate in all known nutrients. The animals were kept on experiment for ten weeks, at essay students which time all remaining animals in persuasive essay on alcohol, each group were sacrificed. #145;A significant reduction in the rate of gain was observed for the groups fed either 5 or 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft as compared to students the groups fed lard. A decrease in speech essay on alcohol, food utilization was also noted when Myrj or Sta-Soft was fed. Essay For Efl. Marked changes in the intestinal tract occurred and severe diarrhea also were observed for the animals fed Myrj or Sta-Soft. Mortality data, data on organ weights and gross pathology, also indicated that the ingestion of these compounds in these amounts was deleterious to the hamster as compared to the data obtained for persuasive speech essay, animals fed lard. #145;Animals fed 5 or 15 per research paper cent.
Myrj, Sta-Soft, or lard were sacrificed after two, four, six, eight, and ten weeks on experiment for histological study. Sections of the persuasive speech on alcohol ileum, duodenum, rectum, liver, and kidney were examined for any histological abnormalities by Dr. Wang, chief of the division of histology of the American Meat Institute Foundation. In addition, sections of the quotations about essay life bone marrow and of testes were taken from some of the animals. Marked changes were observed in the duodenum, ileum, liver, kidney, and testis of hamsters fed 5 to 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft after two to ten weeks on experiment. Persuasive Essay. The changes in the duodenum and ileum consisted of System Software a severe erosion of the mucosa. Necrosis of the persuasive speech essay liver, decreased spermatogenetic activity of the testis, and tubular degeneration of the kidney were also observed.#146; The fate of bread is only part of an entire industrial and profit-mad pattern. Even the dairy products that are recommended for bread have become suspect because of the chemicals employed.
Butter, for example, was relatively pure food until recently. To-day it is common to dye this food a sickly-yellow colour. The problem grows in dimensions when we recognize that the testing standards among pathologists are improving while those of industrial chemists often lag far behind. A large portion of chemicals employed in food products has been insufficiently investigated for carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties. Quotations Life. They have been tested primarily for acute toxicity. Another portion either has been or is being used which is persuasive, allied to know carcinogens. Research Paper. Still others are poisonous under some conditions and #145;less toxic#146; under other circumstances. #145;Butter yellow,#146; notes a memorandum from the Food and Drug Administration, is a colouring matter that was #145;used for a long time before it was discovered to persuasive be carcinogenic, at least in animals.#146; It belongs to an entire class of chemicals known as the AZO compounds which have been found to produce cancer in mice. Oil orange E, another dye #145;in general use#146;, according to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory with the University of Florida, #145;caused tumours in seven out of seventeen mice, fourteen months after the start of the experiment #150; fourteen months is times thomas, about half the persuasive life of a healthy mouse. An eighth mouse showed extensive liver damage#146;.
According to a list prepared by the Food and Drug Administration, over 800 chemicals #145;have been used or are proposed for research paper, use in or on foods, or in such a manner as to persuasive speech on alcohol constitute potential food contaminants#146;. Many of these chemicals have crept into foods for extremely obscure purposes. The public, for example, does not have the faintest idea that phenyl alpha naphthylamine is an anti-oxidant that is known to have been used in chewing gum. Book Report School. Yet this chemical is regarded by the Food and persuasive essay Drug Administration as toxic and #145;not suitable for food use generally#146;. Processor Research Paper. Some substances, like potassium iodide, are used as nutritive supplements in speech essay, #145;iodized salt#146;. #145;However, potassium iodide per se is a poisonous substance. Morever, its use in even relatively small quantities may lead to adverse effects in the case of persons suffering from tuberculosis and possibly other disease.#146; Sometimes, a chemical like saccharic acid, which is considered to be #145;harmless#146; in pure form, is rendered toxic in commercial form because of impurities.
Chemicals, which are apparently harmless, may break down into substances that have toxic effects. Dulcin (alias Sucrol and Valzin), for example, is a synthetic sweetening agent that is explains the attractions particular, chemically known as paraphenetyl urea. It is about 200 times as sweet as cane sugar and does not produce the after-taste found in on alcohol, saccharine. According to Dr. A. J. Lehman, Director of the Division of essay questions Pharmacology of the Food and essay Drug Administration: #145;Although it has been available for over fifty years no investigation of its possible adverse affects when consumed daily in small amounts over students a long period of time was made until a few years ago when the persuasive essay on alcohol Food and Drug Administration studied the problem. Previous toxicity studies had been content to show that no immediate ill effects were noted in either man or animals from quantities such as would be used for sweetening foods. The fact that several workers had reported that Dulcin could break down to para amino phenol in the body us suspicious of it. Para amino phenol is also formed from acetanilid and is responsible for that drug#146;s poisonous effect on the blood. Our study of the chronic toxicity of Dulcin was begun in the fall of 1947 and extended over a two-year period.
It consisted of incorporating Dulcin or one of three other synthetic sweetening agents into the diet of rats and observing the effects on growth and survival throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined microscopically to see what pathological changes had taken place. As the experiment progressed it became increasingly evident that the toxic properties of Dulcin make it unsuitable for use in food. As soon as the scientific evidence permitted such a conclusion a statement of policy was published in System Software, the Federal Register (19th January, 1950) announcing that we regarded Dulcin and P-4000 (another synthetic sweetener) as poisonous substances which have no place in food.#146; Dulcin, it may be noted, was used in food products for sufferers of diabetes mellitus.
Anyone who is familiar with the characteristics of this disease may well know the extraordinary danger that toxins #150; especially blood toxins #150; present to persuasive speech on alcohol diabetics. On 9th February, 1949, the Food and Drug Administration undertook to essay questions for efl students advise a large manufacturer of diabetic food products that incomplete studies indicated the toxic properties of Dulcin. Persuasive. After an exchange of new york times 2004 thomas letters and oral views that continued into September of the same year a representative of the Food and Drug Administration observed that #145;we were somewhat surprised to learn that your company had continued to use Dulcin although fully aware of the fact that studies that were under way were indicative of the probably toxicity of Dulcin#146;. The Company finally discontinued the use of speech this substance. The Food and Drug Administration, it may further be noted, also learned that Dulcin not only l. friedman inhibits growth and affects the blood adversely, but that it also produces#133; liver tumours! While few companies, to-day, are prepated to make the protracted tests that finally revealed the toxic effects of Dulcin, the speech on alcohol use of toxic, #145;near#146; toxic, #145;probably#146; toxic, and about essay village life toxic but #145;harmless#146; chemicals (all of these categories are frequently established in food chemistry) can be multiplied almost indefinitely. They have grown with entirely new classes of synthetic substances for entirely new types of meaningless or obscure uses. Alkyl aryl sulfanates are #145;wetting agents#146;, the toxicity and side effects of which #145;require careful study#146; according to the Food and Drug Administration.
But what, if you please, is a #145;wetting agent#146;? Is the public familiar with its function or its need? A Food and Drug Administration list faintly hints that this type of substance is employed for washing fruits and vegetables. Persuasive On Alcohol. Or else one discovers that there are wax coatings, resins, plasticizers and other ingredients of packaging materials. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, for example, are a number of such substances that have been used for coating tin cans. Some of these resins are explicitly regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as deleterious; others are believed to be #145;relatively#146; safe. The hazards to the consumer depend upon book report, #145;whether the material would be transferred to speech essay the foods with which it might come in contact either by direct solution or leaching, volatilization, abrasion, or other methods#146;. The problems, in short, are legion and the possibilities for endangering the public health depend not only upon primary or secondary effects, but reach back into tertiary stages of essay questions nutrition. They grow with a one-sided over-complication of society, with a distortion of persuasive speech essay on alcohol man#146;s relationship to natural forces and System Software his bodily needs. Within recent years, the rise of speech essay on alcohol little known and even unknown infectious diseases, the increase of degenerative illnesses and, finally, the write that explains high incidence of cancer suggests come connection between the growing use of chemicals in persuasive speech essay, food and essay questions for efl students human diseases. There are, of course, many diseases that have been with man for immemorial ages.
Little is known of why these diseases are acquired by some individuals while other individuals are immune. Investigation is slowly (and all too slowly) moving toward the study of immunity, of resistance factors which depend partly upon heredity but also upon the level of speech nutrition. Now, chemicals in food products may well play a very important role in these problems. Much has to be learned of the primary, secondary and tertiary effects individual chemical substances, their derivatives and combinations play in reducing immunity. Something is already known of the lower nutritive level that has already been produced by many chemical substitutes in food. The toxins produced by bacteria, however, remain the direct agents of write an expository that of a death from infectious disease. In this connection, an entirely new field of research is being opened. It is known, for persuasive speech, example, that species of bacteria are no longer as stable as was once assumed. Apparently harmless bacteria may undergo mutation or enter into an environment that suddenly renders them dangerous to human health. The question is: are chemicals in food products responsible for any of these changes and new environmental conditions?
In testimony before the Select Committee, Dr. Bing raised some considerations along this line. #145;The incidence of many diseases is changing,#146; he said. #145;There is an increase in new york thomas, the morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases. And then we have this phenomenon of persuasive speech essay new diseases appearing, conditions which were unknown heretofore or which were seen so little that they went unrecognized. #145;The increase in incidence #150; and, well, man is essay students, heir not only to old diseases, but he acquires some new ones from on alcohol, time to time. Whenever that occurs we naturally suspect a change in the environment. #145;Now, foods are part of the an expository essay that explains particular environment of the human being, and some alterations in foods are suspect or some alterations in drugs that may be given are always suspect.#146; Dr. Bing specifically pointed to one disease that is suspected to have arisen or, at least, to have increased in incidence because of an emulsifying agent in vitamins. #145;There is this condition of retrolental fibroplasias of babies born prematurely.
That condition is characterized by a change in the retina of the eye, and it results in total blindness of the baby in both eyes. #145;That condition was either now known or was observed so occasionally that it was not recognized, by and large, up until about 1941, and then the incidence of it increased so that from speech, 30 to 40 per book cent. of the prematurely born babies in some nurseries, some hospitals, had this condition and persuasive essay on alcohol become blind. #145;Now, the medical investigators looking into that have cast suspicion on the use of synthetic emulsifying agents present in a vitamin preparation which was administered to the new-born babies. System Software. They are not sure that I was the essay on alcohol emulsifying agent or not, but they have called attention to the fact that when they changed from the vitamin preparation containing this synthetic emulsifying agent to the same vitamins without that particular material, the incidence went from 30 to 40 per System Software cent. blindness down to less than 1 per cent.#146; It is widely agreed that the tempo and insecurity of American social life is a vital factor in the increase of degenerative diseases like heart and circulatory illnesses. Persuasive Speech. But very little attention has been given to the role of chemicals in food. This problem is especially complex because much has to be learned about the way the body absorbs and uses calcium and magnesium salts #150; in addition to many other substances that make for over-all health.
When synthetic toxins and research paper chemical combinations are introduced into the body, however, it is clear that all the balances that normally exist in a healthy human being are altered. While nature provides for many tolerances in the body, a sustained attack upon these tolerances is certain to have disastrous effects. In the oxidation of sugars, for example, quantities varying up to a teaspoonful of insulin (about 1 cc) are responsible for the difference between a mild and severe case of diabetes. Consider then, what it means when chemicals are introduced that violate these #150; and even more slender #150; tolerances day after day and year after year. A further problem is the persuasive speech heavy burden which toxins and questions students chemicals place on the eliminatory organs of the body. Under the best conditions (which seldom prevail) these toxins are excreted.
Before they are removed, however, they not only remain a burden to the entire organism but especially to the heart, liver and kidneys which are most frequently involved in diseases of old age. In short, it is on alcohol, still to be determined how a chemical in food #145;behaves in the body, how it is handled in the alimentary tract; whether it is digested and absorbed; and, if absorbed, where it goes. Is it handled by the liver, the great chemical organ of the body, and converted to something else, and the eliminated or does it pile up in the tissues or go to the kidneys, where many soluble substances are channeled in order to about life be excreted? Does it have any effect on any of the organs of the body?#146; Dr. Bing, who posed these questions for the Select Committee, expanded upon the problems they raise for research. #145;We now know that there are some poisons which will kill an animal without causing any demonstrable pathology or change in speech on alcohol, the structure of the cells. Cyanides can combine with the blood pigment and prevent taking in oxygen from the air. Write An Expository Essay That Particular. And then there are certain organic synthetic compounds which react with substances in the body called enzymes, and can cause sudden death in experimental animals without giving any clue to persuasive speech essay on alcohol any pathologist who may make sections of all the tissues of the body and look for report, changes in the cell structure.#146; They very multitude of persuasive essay on alcohol questions that can be raised around chemicals in food provides the essential setting for an answer.
In so delicate an arrangement as the times 2004 l. friedman human body, it can be asserted that many synthetic chemicals probably play a sweeping role in persuasive speech, diseases that are due to changes in about life, human physiology #150; in speech essay on alcohol, the #145;degenerative#146; illnesses. Perhaps the most remarkable data thus far on questions, the role of persuasive speech chemicals in disease has been accumulated on cancer. This data has been supplied from two aspects of research: the known properties of many chemicals in causing cancer (carcinogens) and the characteristics of malignant growth. That certain chemical substances could produce cancer was proven in 1915 when two Japanese investigators, Yamagiwa and Ichikawa, managed to produce cancer in rabbits with coal tar. Since then tests of some 1,000 chemicals have led to the discovery of about 100 carcinogens. Some of these chemicals like 9,10-dumethul-1, 2-benezathracine require only three applications to the skin to lead to cancer in processor, a few months. But it is necessary to emphasize that the persuasive essay vast majority of carcinogens require long-continued applications of small doses before cancer can be produced. Carcinogens can be used for a long time before they are known to cause malignant tumours. New York Times 2004 Essays. As a result of investigations by Goldblatt, for example, the #145;interval between the first exposure of workmen to cancer-producing compounds and the appearance of symptoms of the disease was eleven to sixteen years in 54 per cent. of the cases. It was twenty to forty-eight years in 19 per cent. The shortest period exposure sufficient to cause cancer was 3.5 years and the longest thirty-three years.#146; A carcinogen may thus be used as a chemical in food without lending itself to essay any assured means of discovery #150; perhaps not only for many years but even at all.
Even when carcinogens are used on short-lived experimental animals, unknown conditions for of a, cancer may remain long after use has been discontinued. In recent studies on the incidence of lung cancer among smokers, the investigators proffered the persuasive on alcohol suspicion that cancer appeared later in life as a result of smoking although smoking was discontinued decades earlier. A new term (carcinogens) has been established for chemicals that #145;will not produce cancer when administered alone, but will enhance the cancer-producing power of about other chemicals. For example, if very small doses of 20-methylcholanthrene are applied to the skin, no cancer may develop but if the skin is then rubbed with croton oil, tumours soon appear at its site of application. #145;These small doses of the carcinogens will not produce cancer, but when the small doses of persuasive essay carcinogen is report elementary school, followed by the croton oil, then a tumour appears. #145;The croton oil can be applied several months after the cancer-producing chemical has been administered. Simultaneous application is not necessary.#146; The effects of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, therefore, prove to have an extremely complex background. Two substances may not appear to speech be carcinogenic when individual tests are made; but in combination, or in any given sequence of application, they may produce cancer sooner or later. Questions For Efl Students. Since any numbers of combinations or sequences are theoretically possible, the entire concept of carcinogens wants revision. As long as synthetic chemicals are used in food, the human body comes to resemble ac chemical factory in persuasive essay on alcohol, which incalculable combinations of toxins and carcinogens are possible at any stage of life.
The problems of chemicals in food products no longer centre so much on individual chemicals as they do on a completely altered level of physiology, nutrition and irritability. The fact that cancer can derive from the mistreatment of the body as a whole is suggested from the standpoint of pathological as well as chemical research especially in elementary, the work of Harry S. On Alcohol. N. Greene at the Yale University Medical School. In the course of transplanting tissues that was microscopically diagnosed as cancerous, Greene found that sometimes tissue could be transferred successfully to the eye of an alien species and at other times it could not. After further research, Green came to the conclusion that many tumours which receive a diagnosis of new york essays thomas cancer as a result of microscopic analysis were actually benign. Only the malignant tumours could be transferred. These facts led to several lines of speculation. Cancer may be suspected of deriving as a rule from pre-cancerous lesions. In the pre-cancerous stage, a tumour may microscopically resemble in every detail a malignant growth and still be benign. Persuasive Essay. Although it will be diagnosed as cancer and often successfully removed, in an expository explains of a particular place, this stage there is no danger of metastasis (spreading to other sites). After a while, the supposed cancer may become truly cancerous and only then will metastasis occur.
What causes the change in behaviour? Greene expresses the belief that constitutional rather than local abnormalities are responsible. Abnormalities in the organism as a whole seem to disturb the organization of the cellular structure. This leads first to a development through a pre-cancerous stage and eventually into malignant tumours and metastasis. On Alcohol. Greene#146;s view, of course, does not necessarily challenge the local view of cancer; as, for example, when tissue is rendered cancerous by continual irritation.
Rather, Greene also seems to open a more general source of System Software disturbance. His view implicitly challenges the essay on alcohol entire environment of man. Among the most direct factors of man#146;s environment to-day that make for constitutional abnormalities are the tempo and insecurity of existence and the wholesale alteration of diet by the use of chemicals in times 2004 thomas, food products. The former has given rise to nervous disorders on a vast scale. The latter tends to upset and distort human physiological processes, render nutrition inadequate and introduce repeated irritants and an over-loading of substances or toxins into the body. Essay On Alcohol. The problem that chemicals in food presents can no longer be confined to the danger of acute toxicity. Sensational cases of food-poisoning (bad as they are) have been overshadowed by the slow distortion of organic processes as a whole. Broad issues in ecology, chemistry and physiology are being raised #150; not simply local instances of acute toxicity which supplied most of the attacks and legislation against the food industry in new york times 2004 essays thomas l. friedman, the past. When chemical fertilizers include the risk of altering soils, a general ecological problem is presented. Persuasive Essay. When insecticides are developed from relatively simple compounds to complex and stable hydrocarbons that remain in System Software, animal tissue, the very constituents of the human body are involved.
Finally, when innumerable types of chemical substances are introduced into the absorptive, physiological and metabolic processes of the body, the whole cycle of nutrition, growth, organic development and the normal tempo of physical degeneration in the course of speech essay on alcohol life is changed adversely. We have said that the motive for introducing chemicals in food is profit. We shall soon have the occasion to point out that even more fundamental reasons have arisen in recent times for chemicals in food products. But for the present this motive continues to operate and extend itself, and it has led to System Software an increasing and reckless marketing of the public health. Just as the profit-system introduces more and more irrational uses of man#146;s productive forces, so the problems raised by chemicals in food are met with totally irrational #145;solutions#146;. Perhaps the speech on alcohol most absurd illustration is the story of #145;enriched#146; bread.
To-day, the housewife is likely to encounter explosive advertising notices on bread that is #145;enriched#146; with vitamins and other substances. For Efl. The facts, however, are that many breads which are described as enriched have first been deprived of valuable nutrients. The wheat is bleached and speech essay chemicals are introduced to replace the effect of natural substances that are useful to the human body. Write An Expository Essay Of A Particular. This approach to speech essay nutrition #150; if such it can be called #150; is in itself so perfectly irrational and wasteful that it would defy any rational mind if it was any worse than many irrationalities to-day. Many individuals who do not pretend to an expert knowledge of food or agriculture see in chemicals an assertion of write an expository essay of a particular man#146;s power over nature, a substitute for vital natural products and human labour.
This concept is persuasive speech essay, only partly true, as it stands, and so far as food is concerned is dangerously wrong. Paper. The human body probably functions with the greatest difficulty when it is nourished in piece-meal fashion, on the basis of what we think we know it requires. There are many important things we do not know for which there are certainly no synthetic substitutes. Modern science, at present, tends to segment the speech essay unity of the body into departments of essay questions students knowledge that are, thus far, only approximations of its actual activities. These departments #150; physiology, morphology and so on on alcohol, #150; do not completely open to us the complex, organic facts and quotations about life relations that actually exist in the organism. Speech Essay. The body, for students, example, requires certain indispensable traces of metals and compounds. In greater quantities these substances prove to be poisonous and, perhaps, carcinogenic.
When foods are bleached, dyed, sprayed or synthesized, these traces can be lost or excessively increased. Sometimes, the chemist and physiologist has only a faint idea #150; if at all #150; of what is required. Chemistry continually suggests cheap substitutes, but it is seldom possible to arrive at what is actually necessary to meet the complexities that enter into persuasive essay on alcohol the total process. In pure foods, however, traces are not only acquired in a manner by which the organism, over the course of animal evolution, has long been adapted to receive them, but they can also be eliminated without damage when these trace materials become excessive. The chemist, on the other hand, may synthesize compounds which the essay for efl students body is compelled to receive because these compounds obey the persuasive speech essay on alcohol general laws of chemistry more closely than the chemical processes of life. He may render compounds soluble which in pure foods are first acted upon by digestive agents. System Software. Indispensable steps in digestion, which may be both stages of nutrition and also obstacles to the assimilation of undesirable compounds both in quality and quantity, are thus replaced by laboratory techniques. Even enzymes have now been synthesized to replace natural agents of on alcohol digestion, often with a very imperfect picture of human digestive activity as a whole.
The human body, therefore, becomes a receptacle for chemicals it is compelled to absorb, not what it definitely needs. The principle behind this fact can be extended to nearly every aspect of nutrition to-day. The modern concept of #145;power over nature#146; is a similar distortion. For centuries, great thinkers had seen in man#146;s control of natural agencies the essay key to persuasive essay on alcohol man#146;s access to leisure, intellectual and spiritual development, and freedom. They did not see in book elementary school, this control an end in itself, but an end to suit man. Moreover, #145;control#146; did not signify violation. It referred to persuasive speech essay on alcohol a conscious turning of nature to meet human needs, as these needs arose from a rational body of social relationships rather than irrational society. #145;Control of essay for efl students nature#146; was founded upon the belief that nature had its own complex laws and that man could produce a society founded upon reason.
At present, the #145;conquest#146; of nature is predicated partly upon a control of forces to conquer the human organism. It is as though our insight into the facts of nature has been employed to manipulate the human body as something outside of nature. Soil experts, nutritionists and essay on alcohol above all food industrialists toy with the human body very much as though it no longer was as much a part of nature as the very natural forces that are commanded by chemistry. But the principal issue is that the #145;conquest#146; of nature currently rests upon problems arising from social blindness and idiocy. Questions For Efl Students. By the misuse of chemistry, man is on alcohol, #145;solving#146; social problems; problems that are related to social insight and intelligence rather than the physical and organic science.
The growth of essays population, for example, has become a major excuse for chemicals in agriculture and food. Yet population is essay, large to-day primarily in the sense that half the world is research paper, practically uninhabited or has little industry, while huge urban centres are choking with millions. Land is insufficient because it is misused and frequently ignore where it is actually available; worse, modern forms of land tenure have driven millions off the land, often into useless occupations. Numerous clerks, impotent bureaucrats, advertising agents and speech essay salesmen have created a new form of urban idiocy to overshadow the tradition of rural idiocy. Paper. This idiocy ranges from speech essay, a daily squandering of hours on trains and buses to an inordinate preoccupation with anti-social and demoralizing media of entertainment. Modern society resists the possibility of restoring human contacts that have been broken by tawdry #145;entertainment#146;, siphoned into the home by television and radio. Essay Questions For Efl. Only recently has an increasing number of people begun to think of decentralizing the great urban menageries #150; and this because of a fear of modern warfare and bombing. Yet in decentralization exists a real possibility for developing the best traditions of social life and for solving agricultural and nutritional difficulties that have thus far been delivered to chemistry. Most of the food problems of the world would be solved to-day by well-balanced and rounded communities, intelligently urbanized, well-equipped with industry and with easy access to the land.
There is a logic to persuasive on alcohol every situation in new york times essays l. friedman, modern society. With the rise of huge cities, with a meaningless increase in detail labour, with the total supplanting of persuasive speech essay quality by quantity production #150; pure foods have not only been rendered unprofitable but also impossible if only because of transport conditions. The adulteration of food has now become a system, a net from which it is almost impossible to withdraw. Nearly every food product that appears on the market is to-day the repository of chemical substances. Years ago, this trend was ineffectively challenged by various #145;fad#146; movements.
Now, there is scarcely any basis for times 2004 essays thomas, choice between pure food and chemically treated products. The door has been closed to individual selection, and speech on alcohol the process of adding synthetic substances proceeds unabated. It is doubtful if legislation will do anything to arrest this trend, even if legislation against chemicals in for efl students, food is enacted. The problem has become a social problem #150; an issue concerning the misuse of industry as a whole. It is on essay, this basis alone that it can be solved.
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Lone Working - A Guide for speech essay on alcohol Safety Representatives. A guide for safety representatives. The HSE says lone workers are 'those who work by themselves without close or direct supervision'. A huge number of jobs can require people to be left alone and isolated. Many of the hazards that lone workers face are similar to those faced by other workers. However, the risks involved may be greater because the worker is on their own. Working on your own can also be more dangerous and new york 2004 some groups such as health, postal, security, and the emergency services are frequently attacked. In retail where lone working is speech on alcohol common, especially is small 'corner shops', industry figures show that 20,000 shopworkers are physically attacked each year and an even greater number are exposed to threats of questions students violence and verbal abuse. In the 2008 TUC safety representatives survey, working alone was the sixth main hazard of concern for safety representatives. The main sectors where working alone was given by safety representatives as a major hazards by representatives were:
Health services (48 per cent) Banking and Finance (45 per cent) Voluntary sector (42 per cent) Local government (41 per cent) Transport and speech communications (37 per cent) Construction (36 per cent) There is no specific law dealing with lone working. However, all health and safety legislation applies equally to lone workers and in some cases, is even more applicable. New York Essays L. Friedman? Unfortunately employers often forget their responsibilities to lone workers, in particular in speech essay on alcohol, respect of issues such as risk assessment, welfare provision, recording of injuries, first aid provision and consultation. The following laws or regulations are particularly important when considering the position of System Software lone workers: The Health and Safety at speech essay Work etc. Act 1974 places general duties of employers and about essay village life employees under Sections 2-9. Generally, the employer has a duty to ensure the persuasive on alcohol, health, safety and welfare of employees. The requirements regarding safe systems of quotations essay village work, health and safety policies, information, training and instruction, and a safe working environment are particularly important.
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 require employers to make suitable and sufficient assessments of risks to their employees. They must also make arrangements for the health and safety of employees by effective planning, organisation, control, monitoring and review. If the on alcohol, risk assessment shows that it is not possible for the work to be done safely by a lone worker, then other arrangements should be put in System Software, place. The Workplace (Health, Safety and persuasive speech on alcohol Welfare) Regulations 1992 cover issues such as temperature access to toilets, water and System Software other welfare issues. They do not only apply to indoor workers.
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 states employers must notify their enforcing authority in the event of an accident at work to any employee resulting in death, major injury or incapacity for normal work for three or more days. This includes any act of violence done to persuasive speech, a person at work. Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977 require employers to consult with their workforce, either directly or through safety representatives. The Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 require the employer to times 2004 essays thomas, provide access to First Aid. Often the risks faced by lone workers will be the same as for other workers but also they may face increased or additional risk from: Fire Inadequate provision of rest, hygiene, and welfare facilities Violence and abuse from members of the persuasive on alcohol, public Theft/intruders Sudden illness/emergencies. Effects of essay social isolation Risks related to essay, driving Lack of supervision and training.
However employers should not make presumptions. The TUC believes that the protection of lone workers must start with a full risk assessment of the work that lone workers do. Too many employers either think that lone workers are covered by the same policies that apply to other employees or they believe that the only problem facing lone workers who work in the community is violence. While the threat of quotations essay village violence is very important this is unlikely to be the only risk, or even necessarily the main one. The HSE, in its guidance on lone working, stresses that the on alcohol, risks must be assessed and controlled and an expository essay that of a particular place says that employers of speech on alcohol lone workers should: involve staff or their representatives when undertaking the required risk assessment process; take steps to for efl students, check control measures are in essay on alcohol, place (examples of System Software control measures include instruction, training, supervision and issuing protective equipment); review risk assessments annually or, as few workplaces stay the speech essay on alcohol, same, when there has been a significant change in working practice; when a risk assessment shows it is quotations essay not possible for the work to be conducted safely by a lone worker, address that risk by, for example, making arrangements to provide help or back-up; and where a lone worker is working at another employer's workplace, that employer should inform the persuasive speech essay on alcohol, lone worker's employer of any risks and the required control measures. Risk assessment should help employers decide on the right level of supervision. The guidance goes on to say that there are some high-risk activities where at least one other person may need to be present. Processor Research? These include some electrical work and work in high-risk confided spaces. The guidance also makes it very clear that 'employers are required to consult their workforce on health and safety matters. It is important to talk to employees and their safety representatives, as they can be a valuable source of information and advice.
Effective consultation will also help to ensure that all relevant hazards are identified, and appropriate and persuasive essay proportionate control measures are chosen.' Employers often use a standard checklist and assess the physical environment, but not the actual work. The risk assessment must be based on for efl students real risks, by using all available information including details from the accident book and consulting with safety representatives. Although risk assessments for some of the work that lone workers do can be carried out on a generic basis, it is persuasive essay not just the actual work but also the working environment which must be considered. A telephone engineer may be more likely to fall when working in an exposed, windy location. In addition the for efl, severity of an injury may be increased by delays in emergency treatment.
A generic risk assessment should be regarded only speech essay on alcohol, as a starting point for tasks being done by a lone worker. Many people working away from a central base may spend long periods driving alone as part of their work activities. The Attractions Particular Place? The main risk for drivers working alone is breaking down in an isolated area. This risk could be increased by employers expecting staff to use their own vehicles where there may be a possibility that the vehicle has not been maintained for a high mileage. A new estate agent had to use her own car for work, although senior staff were provided with a staff car. Speech Essay? On several occasions the vehicle broke down on country roads with no mobile phone coverage.
Although the employer paid a car allowance this did not cover maintenance. The worker was on a very low salary and essay for efl drove a second hand car which was poorly maintained. The employer took no responsibility for this and at the end of her probationary period her contract was not extended. Some employers have started introducing what are called 'dynamic risk assessments' for lone working situations. Persuasive On Alcohol? This is a process where workers themselves have to make operational decisions based on an expository essay that explains the attractions particular risks which cannot necessarily be foreseen. Persuasive Essay? It covers risks which may arise such as if there is a hostile dog or a person in a clients home who is under the essay questions for efl students, influence of drink or drugs and speech essay abusive. Report? Dynamic risk assessments are not a substitute for speech on alcohol a comprehensive risk assessment but in some cases it is not always possible to that place, identify all hazards relating to speech, a role where the working environment is outside the essay students, employers control. However it is not an excuse for employers to transfer responsibility to the worker and most risks CAN be pre-empted. Where a risk assessment identifies circumstances where a lone worker may have to undertake a dynamic risk assessment they must receive proper training on what to persuasive speech on alcohol, do.
They must also get support for their decisions. A paramedic was working alone. He was sent to deal with an emergency, which on the information available, was probably an unconscious drug addict in a derelict building at quotations about village a location where crime was rife. No back up was provided and despite the worker expressing misgivings about the situation he was instructed to persuasive, proceed. He was attacked and was unable to continue working as a result. It went to court and the court judgment included the following statement: 'the final decision on whether to 'go in' must rest with the paramedic who is after all the one who has to paper, take the risk with his or her own safety. However in persuasive essay, most cases risks that some employers see as 'unavoidable' can be foreseen and prevented. Book? The threat of violence can be considerably reduced simply by having another person present. Often information about potential risks is not shared between agencies. Speech? Many employers claim that they cannot share information about about essay village, such matters as a history of threatening or violent behaviour because of the Data protection Act. Persuasive Essay On Alcohol? This is not true.
The Information Commissioner has given detailed advice which makes it clear that agencies can and should share information that may help protect workers and recommends the an expository essay the attractions place, use of persuasive speech on alcohol 'warning markers' to highlight any possible risks. In addition, where the lone worker is quotations about essay village life providing a service such as social care or a health service, clients need to be clear about their responsibilities and speech essay any behaviour that poses a risk to an employee is times 2004 essays thomas not acceptable. When a risk assessment shows that there is a possible risk of violence, an employer's first line of response is speech essay often to introduce personal alarms, walkie-talkies etc. Processor Paper? In some cases they provide no training on speech essay how to use them, and provide no back up maintenance. As a result when a worker does have to use a personal alarm they may find the battery is flat.
Alarms and communication devices must therefore be checked regularly. However alarms and walkie-talkies are not a replacement for prevention. Report Elementary School? Violence can often be prevented by looking at systems of work, the workplace or staffing levels. Simple moves such as having people work in persuasive essay on alcohol, pairs can have a dramatic effect on the risk of violence. Zero tolerance policies and campaigns aimed at making it clear to clients/customers that violence and harassment is both unacceptable and illegal can also help. In some cases, such as drivers with a valuable cargo, tracking systems may also help but staff can be distrustful of employers' motives and there are several cases where such systems have been introduced under the guide of trying to protect workers but have then been used as a form of surveillance. Staff in System Software, betting shops are often subject to violence. This occurs not only as a result of robberies but also because of abuse and persuasive speech on alcohol threats by customers. Their union has been running a campaign aimed at preventing this.
Their demands include : No lone person working under any circumstances Safe mechanisms for banking and cash in transit Thorough reporting/recording of assaults, theft and anti social behaviour in and around the write an expository that the attractions particular, premises CCTV, MAG locks and panic alarms in every shop and appropriate lighting outside every shop Posters warning against anti-social behaviour Rigorous training of staff to deal with conflict resolution New, tighter risk assessments now that shops are open until 10pm in the winter. Where a worker is going to be working or travelling through a remote area where there may be little access to services, and there may be no mobile phone signal this must be reflected in the risk assessment and steps taken to reduce the persuasive essay on alcohol, risk and questions students ensure that the workers have access to persuasive, welfare and other facilities. Steps the employer should take must include: There should be a safe means of travel to and from the workplace/ premises - including when working out of hours There should be procedures to assess time it will take to do the work and how frequently the employee should report in and what will happen if they don't The employee must have access to toilets, rest, refreshment, and first aid equipment There needs to be a policy and procedures for reporting and responding to emergencies There must be consideration to the ease with which emergency services are able to reach the new york essays thomas, isolated area easily and safely without hindrance. Home working is usually a form of speech lone working but, in addition to the usual risks, it raises several other issues that employers need to times 2004 essays thomas, address. Home working is not the same as working in an office and individuals often report feeling isolated. While home working suits some people, who prefer the flexibility and control it gives them, employers have to be aware of the potential difficulties that home working can cause. Persuasive Speech? They also have to fulfil their legal duties, including risk assessment and consultation.
There is questions for efl students some disagreement on whether the employer has to speech essay on alcohol, do an individual risk assessment in a person's home or whether a general risk assessment is book report elementary enough. In part it will depend on the nature of the persuasive speech, work. The HSE states 'It may be necessary for employers to visit their homeworkers to carry out a risk assessment, although homeworkers can also help in identifying the that place, hazards for their employers. Small hazards should not be ignored as they may result in harm, for example keeping potentially harmful substances out of children's reach.' However regulations such as Display Screen Equipment regulations do apply and if the persuasive essay on alcohol, work involves using a computer, the essay for efl, employer must do an ergonomic assessment of the workplace and ensure that the worker has a proper chair and that the computer is set up properly. There is also a requirement for regular eye-testing. Unfortunately very few home workers are given training on essay safety issues such as manual handling, and do not know how to System Software, report any injuries or illnesses, or how to access first aid. A keyboard operator who works from home has her work delivered by post and she e-mails it back.
The employer issued her with a computer but not seating or a desk. She usually worked in the kitchen and ended up with severe backache. She was given no ergonomic assessment, no advice on essay on alcohol set-up, seating, posture, breaks etc. What can safety representatives do? There are a number of positive steps that safety representatives can take to raise awareness and tackle problems with lone working. Use posters and leaflets to bring up the issue of lone working with members and take the opportunity of discussing it with them to see if they think that there are any problems. Safety representatives should report their concerns and those of research their members to management in writing. Many problems faced by lone workers go unreported, in particular violence or threats of violence. Unions can encourage members to report any incidents and ensure they are acted on speech on alcohol by management. Safety representatives could conduct a survey to find out whether lone working is essay that explains of a particular place a problem in the workplace.
Safety representatives can also use their routine inspections or undertake special inspections to speak to speech essay, members about lone working. Lone working policy and procedures. Safety representatives can negotiate with employers to produce jointly agreed policy and procedures to tackle problems associated with lone working. Essay For Efl? Some of the key points include: Working alone on essay site.
Simple guidelines would involve: agreed reporting lines for lone workers on site a signing-in procedure induction sessions for the worker (covering items such as access, welfare facilities, accident reporting, first-aid arrangements and emergency procedures) explaining risk assessments and protective and preventive measures agreeing arrangements for the provision of work equipment. Working away from base. If the work involves a visit to another workplace, preventive measures would generally be the responsibility of the employer in control of that workplace, although the employee's own employer also has responsibilities too. Particular problems for lone workers working away from their base include: