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How to book report Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and it takes time. Against Oppression. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out book questions, how to make a resume that would get you an interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is quick, and dark of human nature essays it's proven to land you interviews.
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Is it the way it looks? Not only. We've optimized the book report questions sample resume on dark side of human nature the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step:
Resume vs. CV. What's the frindle book questions difference? Hello, blank page. Topics. Now, what? A resume is frindle book questions a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for of human nature, a job. What's the difference between a resume and frindle book report questions a CV?
Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. It's the ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to studies on painting write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. Frindle Report. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to sociology topics about Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the report questions right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of college essays about, professional resume formats:
Most job seekers choose the frindle book report reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience.
Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is topics about best for you? Need to see examples of report, resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top.
Here is how to christian creative writing write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to report questions add it to sociology to write a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to book questions exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider.
Not using your current work email. Dark Of Human. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for frindle questions, an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to advantage essay your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to frindle book give recruiters the best impression. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers?
Read our guide: How to nature essays Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first. But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume?
The short answer is frindle questions yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the best way to sociology topics start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this: The top of frindle book report questions, your resume is the penthouse - the thesis on painting most important piece of real estate on book report questions the document. Advantage Of Telephone Essay. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch. She is questions looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for topics to write about, it in report questions the top third of your resume.
If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and topics about skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over frindle book report mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of advantage of telephone, experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an frindle report questions MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary.
The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is advantage changing his career from chef to zookeeper.
Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . Frindle Report. When considering how to write a resume profile, think of thesis on painting, it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the company’s needs and values.
It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List. The first section that should appear in the body of an excellent resume is the book report section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to of telephone write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position.
Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in report the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona.
Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials.
Responsible for brand strategy. Christian Writing Contest. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of frindle book questions, three months.
But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to against list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of frindle book, your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher.
You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the college an only child inclusion of frindle report questions, a coursework narrative is another way to college essays an only child reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to book questions write a degree on writing contest a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to book report questions make a good resume that stands out of telephone, , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to frindle book have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the key skills listed in the job description.
This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to know how to make a great resume for fight against, a job that showcases the book report questions best resume skills? I thought so. Thesis Studies On Painting. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the frindle report traditional resume sections are doing it for essay, you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for book questions, awards or honors, or a section for thesis studies on painting, extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an frindle extra section for certificates, licenses, or software.
Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to advantage of telephone essay add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and frindle book report questions projects. Whatever you decide to sociology to write about add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is frindle questions optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for fight against oppression, a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to frindle report make yourself more attractive and memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long.
Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Christian Creative. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to report questions 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to against oppression essays 6 candidates will get invited for an interview. Book Questions. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.
The software compares your resume to the job description based on of human keywords. Report. How to topics about prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and book questions information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume.
A master resume is an updated version of all your work experience, skills, and christian contest accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of frindle book questions, your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to of telephone essay match the specific job for frindle report questions, which you are applying. To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to tight deadlines.
To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the fight essays phrases verbatim to your experience section. Report. For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of against, campaigns you can juggle at frindle book report questions, once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to about do is make things quantifiable. Frindle Book Report Questions. Wherever possible.
Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and dark side essays draws the eye of the report recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well.
Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section. You will want to use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by fight against oppression essays, 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for book, in your experience section?
More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is side of human essays boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression.
What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. Book Report. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by being child, a story of frindle book report questions, career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place.
You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Fight Essays. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Questions. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans. Against Oppression. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control.
Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on how to frindle book report write a resume for thesis, students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to frindle book report describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for essays, top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and report questions demonstrated ability to quickly learn and master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the topics to write same organization?
You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the frindle best resume look messy. Creative Writing Contest. Here’s what to frindle report questions do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and fight against oppression achievements.
Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to frindle book report make a resume easy for a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and sociology font size, and make strategic use of book report questions, bold, italics, and thesis studies caps. The bulk of frindle, your resume will consist of essays, bullet points. Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to frindle report questions create a resume using templates.
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But you don’t want to frindle book report force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to oppression do is to go through at frindle, the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on essays about an only child how to book make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You. One of the worst things you can do is send out a basic resume that is full of grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools.
Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to dark nature essays read over your resume for you. How to report questions Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice.
That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by entering your name into essay Google to frindle book report questions see what comes up in the results. Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. Essay. As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about frindle book questions, yourself at all. Some of you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an sociology about image of book, your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the on painting information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to contact the frindle report webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters.
A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to essay write a resume, you can forget about book report questions, landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to studies on painting the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. Frindle Book Report Questions. So, lose the phrase references upon request.
Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to topics to write write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like email@example.com , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from other candidates.
One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in frindle every case. To Write. You will need to frindle report questions decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to against oppression essays publish your resume and send a link to frindle report questions employers. Sending a link will allow you to thesis studies on painting track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing.
Want to send a personal message but can't find the book hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to thesis studies track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to frindle book report job interviews. Studies On Painting. And knowing how to make a resume for frindle book questions, a job is the first step on thesis studies on painting any career path. So, take the time and energy to think about how to frindle book questions write a resume well and how to tailor it to to write the job description.
If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out frindle book report questions, our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in about being child the article?
Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and book report questions eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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Advantages And Drawbacks Of 'Accordion Families' In sociologist Katherine Newman's new book, The Accordion Family , she argues that globalization and frindle book report weak economies have caused households to expand and oppression essays incorporate grandparents, parents and children under one roof. Host Michel Martin speaks with Newman and two other women who live in frindle report questions multi-generational homes. Side Of Human Essays. MICHEL MARTIN, HOST: I'm Michel Martin and this is TELL ME MORE from NPR News. They say it takes a village to raise a child, but maybe you just need a few moms in your corner. Every week, we check in with a diverse group of frindle report questions, parents for their common sense and savvy parenting advice. Now, you might have heard stories about adult children moving back in with their parents or grandparents coming to stay with their children. Topics. Well, according to the Pew Research Center, one in frindle questions six Americans now lives in a household like that. That's more than a 10 percent increase since 2007.
So, today, we thought we would like to talk about the advantage of telephone essay blessings and the challenges of these multigenerational living arrangements. We're joined now by Katherine Newman. She's the author of a new book. It's just out frindle book today called The Accordion Family. She's a sociology professor at Johns Hopkins University. Advantage And Disadvantage Of Telephone Essay. She's also the mom of a 22-year-old son who's living at home. Welcome.
Thanks so much for joining us. KATHERINE NEWMAN: Nice to be with you. Book Report Questions. MARTIN: Also with us, Elizabeth Fox. She's the essays about child mother of two and report questions grandmother of two. Her daughter's family moved in with her six years ago. Welcome. ELIZABETH FOX: Thank you.
Great to meet you. MARTIN: And Rebecca Aguilar is the mom of one teenaged son. Topics To Write About. Her father-in-law has lived with her family for frindle book report, the past 10 years. Nice to hear from you, too. REBECCA AGUILAR: Hi there. MARTIN: Well, Katherine Newman, let's start with you.
Your book comes out thesis studies on painting today. What is an accordion family? I mean, for a lot of people, that's just normal, isn't it? NEWMAN: Well, it hasn't been normal for quite some time, but basically, an accordion family is a multigenerational household in which you have adult children over the age of 21 living with their parents. And, actually, that has not been the norm in frindle the middle class for on painting, some time. It would have been the norm before the Second World War, but it really hasn't been for some time now. MARTIN: And what is driving that? NEWMAN: . with the report economic difficulties that young people find themselves in. MARTIN: Yeah.
Tell us a little bit more about that. I interrupted you. On Painting. It's just - this is frindle questions, relatively recent because of the essays an only economy, which seems to be hitting younger people, younger workers very hard. NEWMAN: Exactly. Now, that said, it's actually a trend that's been in play for some time now, so it's not unique to the recession we've been mired in.
But, really, ever since about the frindle report questions early 1980s, we've seen a pretty steady increase in sociology to write the proportion of young people of this age group that have been either moving back with their parents or who don't leave in the first place. And that's mainly because the economy has been changing in frindle report questions ways that make it difficult for young people to about being an only, find entry level employment that really pays enough for them to frindle book, be independent. As well in christian creative the middle class, where we see ambitions for professional futures, it takes longer and longer and more and more money to achieve the kind of educational credentials needed to launch a middle class professional life. So we see young people who complete college and move back in with their parents in report order to shelter those costs of the master's degree or experience with an internship where they're not earning any money at all in the hopes of launching at a higher level when they get a bit older. Essays Being Child. MARTIN: Elizabeth Fox, you actually call your home project intergenerational living.
Tell us a little bit more about that. How was it decided that your daughter and her family would move back in with you? FOX: Well, unlike some of what Katherine mentioned, both our children got as far away as they could after college. They were 15 years out in California, but our daughter and her family, when they had children, basically, decided to come east and frindle started with us. And after a few months, we said, you don't really need to look for a house way out nature essays there in book questions the burbs where you could afford it. Stay here. And that's what happened. MARTIN: And there was no - it sounds so smooth.
Was it really that smooth? FOX: It was a pretty smooth transition there. It just - you know, we were able to share the costs of topics to write about, renovating the house somewhat so everyone had some privacy and we were bonded with the grandchildren by then and all of the book report benefits were starting to come. MARTIN: Okay. Rebecca Aguilar, how about sociology topics to write about, you?
You have a teenager and book report questions an 84 year old in the same house. On Painting. How did that arrangement come about? AGUILAR: Well, we kind of frindle book questions, started talking about it a long time ago when I married my husband. We were living in advantage Los Angeles and my father-in-law would come and visit with my mother-in-law and I just adored him because, you know, every time I'd leave for work, I'd come back and here's this huge lasagna dinner and I'm thinking, I need this man in my life. And so we would take these long walks. It was great. And I'd always say, hey, Pops - that's what I call him, Pops.
I was like, if anything ever happens to Betty, I want you to frindle, move in with us. And he's like, you're crazy. I go, no. I really do. And I kind of wanted him to move in before Mom - my mother - moved in, but anyway - and so what happened is, sure enough, unfortunately, my mother passed away in 2001 and I said, Pops, you know, if you want to move in with us - you know, I didn't want him to of telephone essay, be alone. Frindle Report Questions. I live in Texas and he lived in Long Island and I didn't want him to be alone. And I'm Mexican-American, so both my parents - their families took in sociology topics to write their parents. So it's kind of a cultural thing with us, too. Questions. So we, in our family, my brothers, sisters, we had already talked about who's going to take in and disadvantage of telephone our parents. It's just part of our culture. And so my father-in-law moved in and it's been the frindle best.
It has been - my 15-year-old adores him. They do a lot of topics to write about, things together. It's rebuilt the relationship between his son and himself because, you know, I mean they didn't really talk a lot when they were under the same roof and now, you know, they're recapturing that time, and it's wonderful and he's great. I'm a reporter by profession, so when I have to go out of town I, you know, I trust my father-in-law. I trust that my father-in-law is in good hands with my 15-year-old and frindle questions my 15-year-old is in good hands with my 84-year-old father-in-law. MARTIN: If you're just joining us, you're listening to TELL ME MORE from NPR News. To Write. We're talking about book questions, multigenerational living. We're talking about the challenges and blessings of having grandparents, parents, adult children, all under one roof - teenagers, kids. We're talking with Rebecca Aguilar, that's was speaking just now.
Her household includes her husband, teenage son and father-in-law. Elizabeth Fox is thesis, also with us. Her daughter and grandchildren lives with her. And also with us, Katherine Newman, sociology professor at Johns Hopkins University. Her new book is called, The Accordion Family, where she talks about book report questions, this. Now Prof. Newman, I'm not investigating for pain here, but that the families who - the moms we're speaking with, this has worked out nicely.
It seems to be a wonderful arrangement that just provides a sense of essays about an only, kind of mutual, you know, support. But I'm thinking for some people there's probably some shame attached to this. Frindle Report Questions. You can see a scenario where the arrangement isn't as welcome. Can you describe a little bit of thesis, that? I know you talk about that in frindle book the book. Thesis Studies. What are the circumstances in which this doesn't seem to be working out as well? NEWMAN: It's more complicated in households where the young person who's joined - rejoined the family - isn't making progress toward a more independent future.
If Johnny is playing videogames in the basement and seems to be avoiding the hard choices and difficult aspects of growing up and book report taking his place ultimately in some adult role, then that can be a source of topics about, real frustration. Or if the young people in the house aren't pulling their own weight, if they expect to be treated or cared for as they did when they were little children, that can get to be frustrating for their parents, especially if both parents are working for a living. Book Questions. So, you know, I'm actually pleased to about being, say that much of the time this works out exceptionally well, as has been described by your guests. Because in many accordion families, the return of the report young adult provides an opportunity for parents to side of human nature, get to know their children as equals or as something closer to equals because they subtract out all of those onerous responsibilities for book report questions, surveillance. You know, is Mary home at midnight? What is Johnny doing at two in the morning? All those, you know, are they getting their homework done? Those are the kinds of questions that they had to thesis studies, entertain when those young people were teenagers and report the official responsibility of their parents. But if they return at the age of 23 or 24, they're a little bit more like autonomous adults, a little bit more like roommates or boarders with a lot of sociology, affection thrown in on the side. Book. And for baby boom parents who worked their way through their children's childhood and adolescence, they may not have had as much time with them as they would like.
And so when those young people return as more independent, not completely independent clearly, but more independent adults, maybe even contributing to the household - as is true for your guests, then it can be a very pleasurable experience, as long as it looks like it's got an endpoint in essay which everyone assumes the roles that society assigns to them, which includes a degree of autonomy and self-determination and responsibility for frindle book report, that young adult. Sociology Topics To Write About. MARTIN: Well, Elizabeth, that's interesting because your arrangement doesn't have an endpoint. FOX: No. We all went into this the book report questions idea that it's forever. And I would say that if you look at some of the reasons why people do this, most often it is economic. We do have financial savings for our housing costs, which we share 50-50.
And for my husband and me that was a substantial savings - and for them as well, they can live in a better place, better location; not commute and all that. But I think that the advantage essay strains would be great if you are one of the frindle report questions many people in and disadvantage essay this circumstance who are really barely, barely making it. I think that financial constraints are just, you know, huge if you're sharing them with more people who are in that situation. The other thing is that if you as a grandparent did not respect your children's parenting that would be very hard for all of frindle book questions, you, and that's not at all the case with us, fortunately. MARTIN: How does dinner work out? How do you do dinner? FOX: Oh, you hit on the one strain - the kitchen. You know about group homes, those who've lived in dark side nature groups? It's kind of the same, you know, but we're pretty highly scheduled. We have a calendar up on our computers and, you know, who's doing the dinners and who's doing the transportation of the boys to school and so on.
So I would say we've got it as managed as well as possible. MARTIN: So you've got a schedule like who's going to do dinner on what night and who's going to do what? MARTIN: So does your daughter ever say mom, you're not cutting it, you're not pulling your weight on the dinner thing? (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) MARTIN: That's too much takeout on your night? FOX: We have monthly meeting. We have a monthly meeting that's got its own agenda; you check off things, you try to raise things so they don't become problems. MARTIN: Wow. Does everybody get an equal vote kind of thing?
FOX: Yes. Well, do the report boys get an equal vote? Probably not quite. Contest. MARTIN: Wow, that's interesting. Rebecca, what about you? Are there any pressure points for frindle book, you? Are there any strains for you?
AGUILAR: Wow, I keep listening to everybody and fight against I don't seem as organized. I, we kind of wing it. I mean it's just I didn't really have any rules. I just said, you know, mi casa es tu casa kind of thing, you know, my home is your home. I didn't want my father-in-law - I don't know, he was such an easygoing guy. Frindle Book Questions. I mean like I said, I love my mother but it would've been a whole different dynamic with her. So with my father-in-law, we didn't do it for, you know, because of financial reasons or anything like that.
We did it because I just didn't want my father-in-law to essays an only, live alone. MARTIN: What about for frindle report questions, your husband? MARTIN: Because you didn't have to relive, you don't have to advantage, live adolescence with him. But what about your husband? AGUILAR: Oh, he said I married the perfect woman because he was so happy. He couldn't believe that I wanted to take in report questions Pops, and for him it's been great.
I mean they spend time together. They have lunch together. They just, it's been great. An Only Child. I think it's also helped our marriage because, you know, it shows that hey, I am in love with this man if I took in his father. So it's been great. And you were talking about dinner. Frindle Book Questions. That's an interesting point too because sometimes again, we wing it, but I remember one of the things my father-in-law had to learn was how to eat Mexican food. And so I remember one time I made some tacos and he's looking at it with his fork and knife like, OK, how I do this? (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) AGUILAR: So dig into or what do I do? And I finally said Pops; you just pick it up and needed to let me show you how. And so it's been a cultural thing because, you know, one of the things that I've taught him a lot about, you know, the advantage culture, or the Latino culture; other cultures because again, he grew up in a whole different generation where, you know, there was separated the blacks and the whites, and frindle Latinos and thesis the whites.
And so, it's been great for him. Report Questions. And many times he's like, you know, gosh, I learned a lot from you, Rebecca. And I said I too, too. He was in World War II so I relive a lot of the history that happened in sociology topics to write the past; we're in the now, and report that's what's wonderful about it. Studies On Painting. MARTIN: That is interesting. That sounds - OK.
But again, Katherine again, I'm just kind of - I don't want to book questions, be Debbie Downer here, but I am still thinking of the scenario where the studies young person wishes he or she were not there, OK? And I'm just wondering how that plays out, where you were saying that the tension often arises if the senior members, let's say the senior members of the household don't feel that the younger person is frindle report, pulling his or her weight. But what about if that younger person feels that he or she is doing everything possible and isn't advancing? I'm just wondering how that played out, because I'd have to confess, I know a lot of young people in my community where, you know, housing costs - this is an area where housing costs are high, there's a lot of competition for, you know, these fellowships and sociology about internships that are highly desirable, and some of these young folks are ashamed that they're living at home at this stage of their lives and. NEWMAN: I think that shame factor is actually declining because this is becoming so common. We have such an enormous group of people who are returning home and it's not an book, aberration anymore.
It's almost become a normal part of the lifecycle. So people tend to feel shame when they're at odds with the essay currents in report questions their generation. I will say though, that there is tremendous frustration amongst young people today because of the way in which the economy has hammered their options. And, you know, these we're often talking about people whose families have spent hundreds of college essays about being, thousands of dollars putting them through college, only to discover that they really don't have the kinds of professional options that those degrees were supposed to put them in frindle report questions line for. So there is a lot of frustration and it has to do with what the - a bad hand the labor market is dealing to young people today. And if they happen to be in essay families where there's very little understanding of how difficult that is and where their actions are attributable by report questions, their parents only to college essays being child, their personal whims or personalities and questions no recognition of how hard that jungle is out there, then it can lead to a tremendous amount of strain.
And I studied this issue in the book in six different countries and you see real variations in the way different cultures define what's normal and christian creative writing what's a source of shame and frustration - just as your guests have talked about how Mexican culture defines certain things as normal that might not be regarded that way in other communities. Well, in Japan, for example, the phenomenon of the report accordion family is something of fight against oppression essays, a national catastrophe. Frindle Book. It's treated that way. Of Human Essays. It is the subject of an almost hysterical outburst of criticism within the country and gnashing of teeth and defining of the younger generation as completely defectives. But in Italy, where I've studied the frindle book report same thing, it doesn't excite anything like that kind of negative view. It's much more like what your guests are describing: we love having our children at of telephone home, why would they ever want to leave us?
So, you know, Johnny is 35 years old and he's still living at home and his mom is frindle, doing his laundry. And her first question to me in interviews is advantage and disadvantage essay, well, why would he ever want to book questions, leave me? (SOUNDBITE OF LAUGHTER) NEWMAN: So there are tremendous variations in how cultures define what we expect of people at different generations. And some things which are defined as problems by side of human, government, for example, because you can't run a Social Security system if you don't have new generations being born and frindle book report if people don't form new households, often that means they're not having children, those same frustrations that worry policymakers don't really worry ordinary people all that much. They've, you know, they've adapted as some of the people on your show have adapted and actually find it a happy situation. MARTIN: Elizabeth, we only dark side nature have a couple seconds left. MARTIN: I'm going to ask you, since I know you have a social work background in frindle report questions addition to just your own common sense, what are some, what advice for dark of human nature essays, people who are considering such an arrangement that you could pass on - very briefly? FOX: We haven't touched on old age. My husband and I are in our quote, encore phase; we have a lot of outside activities, we're taking care of the frindle report questions kids.
We all are aware that true old age is going to come. College Essays About Being An Only Child. Policymakers should be happy about this trend and report questions I think it's one thing in the bucket for people who are in their 50s, 60s and 70s to think about both their financial and and disadvantage of telephone essay relationship purposes for book, their old age. College Being An Only. MARTIN: Well, what is it that makes it work in your case? Is it that monthly meeting or is it just because you all are so cool? FOX: My husband and my daughter - we had a family where we had lots of people in frindle report our house for various reasons over, you know, her whole life. Essays. So, experience. MARTIN: OK. Frindle Book Report Questions. All right. Katherine Newman is creative, author of the new book The Accordion Family. It comes out today. She's also a professor of frindle report, sociology at Johns Hopkins University.
We actually caught up with her in christian Cape Town, South Africa, where she's traveling. Elizabeth Fox is a mother of two and grandmother of two. Frindle. She was here with us in our Washington, D.C. studio. That's who just had the college last word. Questions. And Rebecca Aguilar has a teenage son and her 84-year-old father-in-law living with her and her husband. And she was with us from topics to write, Dallas. Thank you all so much for joining us. NEWMAN: You're welcome. AGUILAR: Thank you.
NPR transcripts are created on side nature a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and frindle questions produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in and disadvantage of telephone the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.
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essay semiotics We can define semiology or semiotics as the book report questions study of signs. And Disadvantage Of Telephone Essay? We may not realize it, but in fact semiology can be applied to all sorts of human endeavours, including cinema, theatre, dance, architecture, painting, politics, medicine, history, and religion. That is, we use a variety of report gestures (signs) in everyday life to convey messages to people around us, e.g., rubbing our thumb and forefinger together to signify money. We should think of messages (or texts) as systems of signs, e.g., lexical, graphic, and so on, which gain their effects via the constant clashes between these systems. For example, the menu we consult in a restaurant has been drawn up with reference to a structure, but this structure can be filled differently, according to time and place, e.g., breakfast or dinner (Barthes, 1964, p. 28).
In the notes that follow, I will say a few words about structuralism, an intellectual movement which flourished during the and disadvantage 1950s and frindle book report the 1960s, and semiology, which has been one of the chief modes of this intellectual movement. The major figures in this movement include Ferdinand de Saussure, Roland Barthes, Roman Jakobson, Claude Levi-Strauss, Thomas Sebeok, Julia Kristeva, and Umberto Eco. For reasons that will become obvious, I will focus on Saussure and Barthes, the pioneers. All believed semiology is the key to unlocking meaning of all things. the basic elements of structuralism. To begin with, we should think of structuralism as a mode of thought, a way of conceptualizing phenomena. Whereas in the past, determinists like Aristotle saw things in terms of cause and effect, structuralists look for structures: From the 15th century, the word structure was used as a noun: the process of building (Williams, 1976). During the 17th century, the dark side term developed in two main directions: towards the product of building, as in a wooden structure, and towards the manner of construction generally. Modern developments flow from book report questions (b). Thesis Studies? The sense of the latter is: the mutual relation of the constituent parts of a whole which define its nature, as in internal structure.
The term entered the vocabulary of biology in the 18th century, as in the structure of the hand. The term entered the vocabulary of language, literature, and philosophy in the 19th century, to convey the idea of book report questions internal structure as constitutive, as in matters of building and engineering. Scholars would talk (1863) about the structural differences that separate man from gorilla say. We need to know this history if we are to understand the development of structural and structuralist thinking in the 20th century, as in linguistics and anthropology. We note that this theoretical construct dominated intellectual life in France, extending into the literary arts, during the period from side WW I to report, WW II. Linguists in North America had to discard the presuppositions of Indo-European linguistics when they studied the languages of American Indians. They developed procedures for studying language as a whole, i.e., deep internal relations. Thus, we now distinguish function (performance) from christian writing contest structure (organization), as in structuralist linguistics and report functional anthropology.
According to (orthodox) structuralism, these structures range from kinship to fight oppression essays, myth, not to mention grammar, one permanent constitutive of human formations: the defining features of human consciousness (and perhaps the human brain), e.g., Id, Ego, Superego, Libido, or Death-Wish in frindle, psychology. Of course, the assumption here is that the structuralist is an objective observer, independent of the object of consideration. In this context, we use words like code (hidden relations) to describe sign-systems (like fashion). We should note that structuralism challenges common sense, which believes that things have one meaning and and disadvantage essay this meaning is pretty obvious. Common sense tells us that the world is frindle book report pretty much as we perceive it.
In other words, structuralism tells us that meaning is constructed, as a product of essays shared systems of signification. Semiology: Two Pioneers. Again, semiology can be defined as the frindle report questions study of signs : how they work and how we use them. We note again that almost anything can signify something for someone. Saussure developed the principles of semiology as they applied to language; Barthes extended these ideas to messages (word-and-image relations) of all sorts. 1. Writing Contest? Ferdinand de Saussure , 1857-1913. Saussure was born in Geneva, Switzerland, to questions, a family celebrated for its accomplishments in the natural sciences. Not surprisingly, he discovered linguistic studies early in life. In 1875, he entered the University of topics Geneva as a student of physics and chemistry, taking course in Greek and Latin grammar as well. This experience convinced him that his career lay in book report, the study of language. About Child? In 1876, he entered the frindle book University of Leipzig to study Indo-European languages.
Here, he published (1878) a monograph on the Primitive System of Vowels in Indo-European Languages . He was awarded the Ph.D. for writing, his thesis on the genitive case in Sanskrit. After completing his thesis, he moved to Paris, where he taught Sanskrit, as well as Old High German. For 10 years, he focused on specific languages--as opposed to general linguistics. In 1891, he returned to Geneva, to teach taught Sanskrit and report historical linguistics at the university. The university provided the catalyst for side of human nature essays, shaping semiology--he was asked to teach (1906-11) a course of lectures in general linguistics.
He died in February of 1913. His students thought his course so innovative that they assembled their notes and published (1916) a work called Course in General Linguistics . In this work, Saussure focuses on the linguistic sign, making a number of frindle report questions crucial points about the relationship between the signifier (Sr) and the signified (Sd). Sociology To Write? Below I summarise the key ideas: Language (Saussure, 1916) is a self-contained system, one which is made up of elements which perform a variety of functions, based on the relations the various elements have one with another. Book Report Questions? We can think of syntax and grammar as organizing principles of langauge. We have no trouble recognizing the grammatical sense of the following construction: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously . We can think of language (p. 34) as a system of signs, which we can study synchronically (as a complete system at any given point) or diachronically (in its historical development). A signifier (Sr), the sound-image or its graphical equivalent, and its signified (Sd), the concept or the meaning, make up the sign (pp.
36-38). For example, we can say that, to an English speaking person, the three black marks c-a-t serve as the signifier which evokes the cat. The relation between Sr and Sd is essays about being an only arbitrary (pp. 37-38). Different languages use different words for the same thing. No physical connection links a given signifier and a signified. Described in report questions, these terms, language is a system of formal relations. Christian Writing Contest? This means that the frindle report key to understanding the structure of the system lies in difference . Essays About An Only? One sound differs from another sound (as p and b ); one word differs from another (as pat and bat ); and one grammatical forms differs from another (as has run from will run ). No linguistic unit (sound or word) has significance in and of itself. Each unit acquires meaning in frindle book report, conjunction with other units. We can distinguish (p.
29) formal language (Saussure calls it langue ) from the actual use of language (which he calls parole ). Every expression we use is based on collective behavior or convention. We can say that a sign is creative contest motivated when we perceive a connection between Sr and Sd, e.g. in report questions, instances of onomatopoeia like bow-wow and tick-tock (pp. 39-30). 2. Roland Barthes , 1915-80. This cultural theorist and analyst was born in Cherbourg, a port-city northwest of Paris. His parents were Louis Barthes, a naval officer, and Henriette Binger. His father died in 1916, during combat in the North Sea. Advantage Essay? In 1924, Barthes and questions his mother moved to Paris, where he attended (1924-30) the Lycee Montaigne. Unfortunately, he spent long periods of his youth in sanatoriums, undergoing treatment for TB.
When he recovered, he studied (1935-39) French and dark side essays the classics at the University of Paris. He was exempted from military service during WW II (he was ill with TB during the period 1941-47). Later, when he wasn't undergoing treatment for TB, he taught at a variety of schools, including the Lycees Voltaire and Carnot. He taught at universities in frindle questions, Rumania (1948-49) and dark side nature Egypt (1949-50) before he joined (in 1952) the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he devoted his time to sociology and lexicology. Barthes' academic career fell into three phases. During the first phase , he concentrated on demystifying the stereotypes of report questions bourgeois culture (as he put it).
For example, in Writing degree Zero (1953), Barthes examined the link between writing and biography: he studied the historical conditions of literary language and the difficulty of advantage of telephone essay a modern practice of writing. Committed to language, he argued, the writer is at once caught up in particular discursive orders, the report socially instituted forms of writing, a set of signs (a myth) of literature--hence the search for an unmarked language, before the closure of myth, a writing degree zero. During the years 1954-56, Barthes wrote a series of essays for the magazine called Les Lettres nouvelles , in which he exposed a Mythology of the Month, i.e., he showed how the denotations in the signs of christian creative contest popular culture betray connotations which are themselves myths generated by the larger sign system that makes up society. Frindle Report? The book which contains these studies of everyday signs--appropriately enough, it is entitled Mythologies (1957)--offers his meditations on many topics, such as striptease, the New Citroen, steak and chips, and so on. In each essay, he takes a seemingly unnoticed phenomenon from sociology to write about everyday life and deconstructs it, i.e., shows that the obvious connotations which it carries have been carefully constructed. This account of contemporary myth involved Barthes in the development of semiology. During the second phase , the book report semiotics phase dating from 1956, he took over Saussure's concept of the sign, together with the concept of language as a sign system, producing work which can be regarded as an appendix to Mythologies . During this period, Barthes produced such works as Elements of Semiology (1964), and The Fashion System (1967), adapting Saussure's model to the study of cultural phenomena other than language.
During this period, he became (in 1962) Directeur d'Etudes in the VIth section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, where he devoted his time to the sociology of signs, symbols, and representations. The third phase began with the publication of S/Z (1970), marking a shift from Saussurean semiology to fight oppression, a theory of the text, which he defined as a field of the signifier and report of the symbolic. S/Z is a reading of fight against oppression essays Balzac's novel Sarrasine , plotting the migration of five codes, understood as open groupings of signifieds and as points of crossing with other texts. The distinction between the writable and the readable, between what can be written/rewritten today, i.e., actively produced by the reader, and what can no longer be written but only read, i.e., passively consumed, provides a new basis for evaluation. Barthes extends this idea in The Pleasure of the Text (1973) via the body as text and language as an object of desire. During this period, he wrote books as fragments, suggesting his retreat from what might be called the discourse of power, as caught in the subject/object relationship and the habits of rhetoric. He tried to distinguish the frindle book questions ideological from the aesthetic, between the language of science, which deals with stable meanings and which is advantage and disadvantage of telephone identified with the report sign, and the language of writing, which aims as displacement, dispersion. He offers a textual reading of himself in Roland Barthes by Roland Barthes (1975). In 1976, he became professor of thesis on painting literary semiology at the College de France. In his last book, Camera Lucinda (1980), he reflects on frindle the levels of meaning of the photograph.
Barthes died on 26 March 1980, having been knocked over by a laundry van (reports suggest that the driver was drunk). In the notes that follow, I summarise the principle he forumlates in Elements of Semiology : the basic elements of thesis on painting semiology. The goal of semiological analysis is to identify the book report questions principle at work in the message or text, i.e., to determine the rhetoric or the grammar tying together all the elements. I gloss the chief terms used by analysts in the section below, and I provide a short guide to sociology topics to write, semiological analysis in the very last section. 1. axes of language. We get a sense of how language works as a system (Barthes, 1983, p. 58) if we think of language as a pair of axes or two planes of report mental activity, the vertical plane being the selective principle (vocabulary) and the horizontal dimension being the combinative principle (sentences).
For example, we might select items (words) from various categories in the vertical (associative) dimension, such as kitten, cat, moggy, tom, puss, mouser; sat, rested, crouched; mat, rug, carpet and so on, and sociology topics about link them in the horizontal (combinative) plane to formulate statements like The cat sat on the mat . The idea is to think of language (Saussure, 1916) as a system of frindle book report signs. Let me say a few words about this important concept. By system we mean an organized whole, involving a number of parts in some non-random relationship with one another. In other words, a system is a set of entities that interact with one another to form a whole. We speak of mechanical, biological, psychological, or socio-cultural systems. A machine is a system. We think of the brake system in a car. Dark Of Human Nature Essays? An organism like the report questions body is a system. We think of the nervous system.
With regard to social units, we think of the being child family . The members of the frindle book report questions family are the objects of the system. Their characteristics as individuals are the attributes; their interaction forms constitute the relationships. A family exists in a social and cultural environment, which affects and is shaped by, the members. The following example will help clarify three related terms: The system of traffic signals performs the function of controlling traffic; the structure of this system is the binary opposition of red and fight against green lights in alternating sequence. To make a long story short, we should think of texts as systems, e.g., lexical, graphic, and so on, which gain their effects via the constant clashes between these systems. As we have seen, de Saussure--the founder of semiology--was the first to elaborate the tripartite relationship. signifier + signified = sign. According to Saussure, the linguistic sign unites a sound-image and a concept.
The relationship between Sr and book Sd is christian contest arbitrary. It should be remembered that neither of these entities exist outside the construct we call a sign. We separate these entities for convenience only. The signifier --which has a physical existence--carries the meaning. This is the sign as we perceive it: the marks on the paper or the sounds in the air. The signified is a mental concept that is the meaning.
It is common to all members of the same culture who share the book report same language. The sign is the associative total of the two: we speak of it as a signifying construct. During the 1960s, long hair on contest a man, especially if it was dirty (the signifier) usually suggested counterculture (the signified), whereas short hair on report questions a man (the signifier) suggested the businessman or square (the signifier). Of course, these meanings vary according to place and time. The terms motivation and constraint describe the extent to which the signified determines the signifier. Essays Child? In other words, the form that a photograph of frindle questions a car can take is determined by the appearance of the and disadvantage specific car itself. The form of the signifier of frindle a generalized car or a traffic sign is christian creative determined by frindle book questions the convention that is accepted by the users of the code. Motivated signs are iconic signs; they are characterized by a natural relation between signifier and signified.
A portrait or a photograph is iconic, in that the signifier represents the appearance of the signified. The faithfulness or the college essays being accuracy of the representation--the degree to which the signified is re-presented in the signifier--is an inverse measure of how conventionalized it is. A realistic portrait (painting) is highly conventionalized: this means that to signify the work relies on book report our experience of the sociology topics about sort of reality it re-presents. A photograph of a street scene communicates easily because of our familiarity with the reality it re-presents. It is important to recognize that (i) in signs of high motivation, the signified is the determining influence, and (ii) in signs of low motivation, convention determines the form of the signifier. In unmotivated signs, the signifieds relate to their signifiers by convention alone, i.e., by an agreement among the users of these signs. Thus, convention plays a key role in our understanding of any sign.
We need to know how to read a photograph or a sculpture, say. Convention serves as the social dimension of signs. We may not understand the unmotivated verbal sign for car that the frindle French use, but we understand the road signs in college essays being child, France in frindle questions, so far as they are iconic. Christian Creative Contest? The arbitrary dimension of the unmotivated sign is often disguised by the apparent natural iconic motivation; hence, a man in a detective story showing the inside of report questions his wallet is conventionally a sign of a policeman identifying himself and not a sign of a peddler of pornographic postcards. 4. denotation and connotation. Saussure concentrated on the denotative function of signs; by contrast, Barthes pushed the analysis to another level, the connotative. College Essays Child? Simply put, these two terms describe the meanings signs convey. By denotation we mean the common sense, obvious meaning of the sign. A photograph of a street scene denotes the street that was photographed. This is the mechanical reproduction (on film) of the object the camera points at.
For example, I can use color film, pick a day of pale sunshine, and use a soft focus lens to make the street appear warm and happy, a safe community for children. I can use black and white film, hard focus, and strong contrast, to make the street appear cold, inhospitable. Book Report Questions? The denotative meanings would be the fight essays same. By connotation we mean the interaction that occurs when the sign and questions the feelings of the viewer meet. At this point, meanings move toward the subjective interpretation of the sign (as illustrated by the above examples). If denotation is what is photographed, connotation is how it is college child photographed. 5. paradigms and syntagms.
Saussure defined two ways in which signs are organized into codes (Fiske, 1982, pp. 61-64): A paradigm is a vertical set of units (each unit being a sign or word), from which the required one is selected, e.g., the set of shapes for road signs: square, round and triangular. A syntagm is the horizontal chain into which units are linked, according to agreed rules and conventions, to make a meaningful whole. The syntagm is the statement into which the chosen signs are combined.
A road sign is a syntagm, a combination of the chosen shape with the chosen symbol. Paradigms and syntagms are fundamental to the way that any system of signs is organized. Report Questions? In written language, the letters of the christian alphabet are the basic vertical paradigms. These may be combined into book questions syntagms called words. These words can be formed into syntagms called phrases or sentences, i.e., according to the rules of grammar. Syntagms--like sentences--exist in time: we can think of them as a chain.
But syntagms of thesis on painting visual signs can exist simultaneously in space. Thus, a sign of two children leaving school, in black silhouette, can be syntagmatically combined with a red triangle or a road sign to book questions, mean: SCHOOL: BEWARE OF CHILDREN. The term difference describes the relationship between the elements at work in any given message. They work as rhetorical figures, such as the figures of addition , where the elements are added to a word, sentence, or image; or the figures of suppression , where elements are suppressed, concealed, or excluded. The key to understanding the structure of a system of signs, then, lies in understanding the relationship(s) the system utilizes. We are interested in the techniques of additions primarily, which include: Repetition is the repetition of the same element: word, sound or image;
Similarity is christian creative writing contest similarity of frindle report questions form, as in rhyme, or on fight similarity of content, as in frindle questions, comparisons; Accumulation refers to writing contest, a number of different elements conveying the report questions idea of abundance or profusion, verging on disorder and chaos; and. Opposition occurs at the level of christian writing form (an ad set in two different countries) and the level of content (an advertisement for detergent featuring a man in white smocking sitting on a heap of frindle book coal). Thus, difference might be a function of contrast or opposition in terms of: high quality - low quality. The idea is that nothing in and of itself has meaning: rather, meaning is a function of some relationship. 7. Metaphor and Metonymy. These terms--used by christian writing contest Roman Jakobson, the linguist--define the book report questions two fundamental modes by which the meanings of college an only signs are conveyed. Metaphor involves a transposition or displacement from signified to signifier, together with the recognition that such a transposition implies an equivalence between these two elements of the sign. Likewise, visual metaphors are constructed, e.g., a portrait of book report questions a man is constructed in such a way as to convince us that the two dimensional visual representation is equivalent to its three-dimensional reality.
Similarly, a map signifies the reality to which it refers by constructing an equivalent form in whose features we can recognize those of the object itself. Thus, both verbal and non-verbal, arbitrary and iconic signs can be metaphorical. In metonymy, the signification depends upon the ability of a sign to act as a part which signifies the whole . Television advertisers are particularly adept at fight oppression, exploiting both metaphoric and metonymic modes in questions, order to cram as much meaning as possible into a short period of time. Of Human Essays? For example, the frindle book report questions sign of of human a mother pouring out a particular breakfast cereal for her children is a metonym of all her maternal activities of frindle book report cooking, cleaning, and so on, but a metaphor for oppression essays, the love and book questions the security she provides. As we have suggested, the sociology structural relationship between these modes can be visualized as operating on two axes, one vertical and one horizontal in character.
8. three orders of signification. In the study of signs, we can speak of different levels of meaning or orders of signification. In the first order of signification, the sign is self-contained: the photograph means the individual car. This is the denotative order of frindle signification. In the second order, this simple motivated meaning meets a whole range of cultural meanings that derive not from the sign itself but from the way society uses and values the Sr and the Sd. This is the connotative order of signification. In our society, a car--or a sign for a car--can signify virility or freedom.
According to Barthes (1964), signs in the second order of signification operate in two distinct ways: as mythmakers and christian as connotative agents. When signs move to the second order of signification, they carry cultural meanings as well as representational ones, i.e., the signs become the signifiers of CULTURAL MEANINGS. Barthes calls the cultural meanings of these signs MYTHS. The sign loses its specific signified and becomes a second-order signifier, i.e., a conveyor of cultural meaning. We can explain the connotative order of signification with a simple example. A general's uniform denotes his rank (first-order sign) but connotes the report respect we show it (second-order sign). Say that by the end of the war film we are watching the oppression essays general's uniform is tattered and torn; it still denotes his rank; however, the connotative meaning will have changed.
Thus, in the connotative order, signs signify values, emotions, and attitudes. Camera angle, lighting, and background music, for example, are used in film and television to connote meaning. The connotative meaning of a televised painting can be changed by frindle questions the background music accompanying it. The range of cultural meanings that are generated in this second order cohere in the third order of signification into a cultural picture of the world. It is in this order (the third) that a car forms part of the about being imagery of an industrial, materialist, and report questions rootless society. The myths which operate as organizing structures, e.g., the myth of the neighborhood policeman as keeper of the peace and friend of all residents of the community, are themselves organized into a pattern which we might call MYTHOLOGY or IDEOLOGY. In the third order of signification, ideology reflects the broad principles by which a culture organizes and interprets the reality with which it has to cope. This mythology is a function of the social institutions and the individuals who make up these institutions.
9. semiological analysis. Barthes (1964) points out that semiological analysis involves two operations: dissection and to write about articulation. Frindle? The first operation (dissection) includes looking for fragments (elements) which when associated one with another suggest a certain meaning. About An Only Child? The analyst looks for paradigms, i.e., classes or groups from which elements have been chosen (and endowed with specific meaning). The units or elements in this group or class share a number of characteristics. Two units of the same paradigm must resemble one another so that the difference which separates them becomes evident, e.g., to a foreigner, American automobiles seem to look alike, yet they differ in make and frindle color. The second operation (articulation) involves determining the rules of combination. This is the activity of articulation. In summary: The analyst takes the object, decomposes it and then re-composes it. The analyst makes something appear which was invisible or unintelligible. 10.
Concluding Remarks. Like structuralism, semiology decenters the individual, who is no longer the source of meaning. Semiology (Barthes, 1964) refuses the obvious meaning of a work: it does not take the message at face value. We are concerned with MESSAGES and the preferred ways to READ them. I conclude these notes with a guide to sociology to write about, a semiological analysis, based on Barthes' (1977) seminal essay, The Rhetoric of the Image. a guide to a semiological analysis. This guide identifies the key activities analysts undertake when they conduct a semiological critique of a text, such as an advertisement, a tv program, a movie, a painting, etc. Offer your reader a brief overview of the message.
The idea is to provide a brief description of the advertisement (say) so that the reader can visualize the message. Identify the key signifiers and signifieds . Ask questions like: What are the important signifiers and what do they signify? What is the system (of signs) that gives the text meaning? What ideological and sociological matters are involved? Identify the paradigms that have been exploited. Ask questions like: What is the central opposition in book report questions, the text? What paired opposites fit under the various categories? Do these oppositions have any psychological or social significance? Identify the dark of human nature syntagms that come across. Ask questions like: What statements or messages (directly and implied) can you identify?
Answer this question by considering. (a) the book questions linguistic message. This message is made up of all the words, denotations and connotations. (b) the non-coded iconographic (literal) message. This message is thesis on painting made up of the denotations in frindle questions, the photograph. (c) the coded iconographic (symbolic) message. This message is made up of the visual connotations we detect in the arrangement of photographed elements. Finally, identify the thesis on painting principle at work in the message or text. Frindle? Remember, the goal of analysis is to determine the rhetoric or the grammar tying together all the elements. Barthes, R. 1964.
The Structuralist Activity. From Essais Critiques , trans. R. Howard. In Partisan Review 34 (Winter):82-88. ---. 1967. Oppression Essays? Writing Degree Zero , trans. A. Lavers and frindle report questions C. Smith. College About An Only? 1953; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---.
1967. Mytholgies , trans. A. Frindle Book Report Questions? Lavers. 1957; rptd. Dark Side? London: Hill and Wang. ---. Frindle Book Questions? 1967. Elements of Semiology , trans. A. Lavers and C. Smith. 1964; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. Oppression Essays? 1974. S/Z , trans. R. Howard. Frindle Report Questions? 1970; rptd. To Write About? Oxford: Blackwell. ---. Report? 1975. The Pleasure of the topics to write Text , trans. R. Report Questions? Howard. 1973; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1977. Roland Barthes on Roland Barthes , trans. R. Dark Essays? Howard. 1975; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1977. The Rhetoric of the frindle book Image.
In his book Image-Music-Text , trans. S. Heath. 1964; rpt. London: Wm. Collins Sons and Co., pp. 32-51. ---. 1981. Camera Lucinda , trans. R. Howard. 1980; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang. ---. 1983. The Fashion System , trans. M. Ward and R. Against Oppression Essays? Howard. 1967; rptd. New York: Hill and Wang.
de Saussure, Ferdinand. 1960. Course in General Linguistics . 1916; rpt. London: Peter Owen. Eco, Umberto. 1976. Frindle Book Report? A Theory of Semiotics . Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Fiske, John. 1982. Sociology? Introduction to Communication . London: Methuen. Jakobson, Roman.
1960. Linguistics and Poetics. Questions? In Style in Language , ed. Thomas A. Sebeok. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 350-77. Williams, Raymond. 1976. Structural. In Key Words . London: Fontana, pp. 253-59.