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Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents. Edited by sanskrit essays on festivals Susan T. Fiske, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and approved March 18, 2016 (received for review December 1, 2015) There is pay for coursework increasing concern about rising discipline citations in K–12 schooling and sanskrit essays a lack of means to to expand essay length requirements one could reduce them. Predominant theories characterize this problem as the result of punitive discipline policies (e.g., zero-tolerance policies), teachers’ lack of interpersonal skills, or students’ lack of self-control or social–emotional skills. Essays On Festivals! By contrast, the business, present research examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. A brief intervention aimed at essays on festivals, encouraging an empathic mindset about discipline halved student suspension rates over an academic year. This intervention, an online exercise, can be delivered at near-zero marginal cost to large samples of ielts writing task 1 format teachers and students. These findings could mark a paradigm shift in society’s understanding of the origins of and remedies for discipline problems. Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and unemployment. Experiment 1 tested whether teachers ( n = 39) could be encouraged to adopt an empathic rather than punitive mindset about discipline—to value students’ perspectives and essays sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior.
Experiment 2 tested whether an empathic response to misbehavior would sustain students’ ( n = 302) respect for teachers and motivation to behave well in class. These hypotheses were confirmed. Finally, a randomized field experiment tested a brief, online intervention to encourage teachers to to expand a five-paragraph essay length requirements one could adopt an empathic mindset about discipline. Evaluated at five middle schools in three districts ( N teachers = 31; N students = 1,682), this intervention halved year-long student suspension rates from 9.6% to 4.8%. It also bolstered respect the most at-risk students, previously suspended students, perceived from teachers. Teachers’ mindsets about sanskrit on festivals discipline directly affect the quality of teacher–student relationships and student suspensions and, moreover, can be changed through scalable intervention. Removal from mainstream education settings for discipline problems denies children opportunities to learn and ielts task thus predicts major negative life outcomes such as adult unemployment and sanskrit essays incarceration (1). However, in the United States, the number of essays about grandparents students suspended for misbehavior nearly tripled from 1.7 million in 1974 to more than 5 million in 2011 (3.7–11% of essays all students) (2, 3). Academic Task! Contemporaneously, a dominant approach to misbehavior, which prioritizes punishment over remediation, has emerged in US schooling (4).
For instance, zero-tolerance policies aim to deter misbehavior through tough consequences and thus promote severe disciplinary action (e.g., suspensions) for even minor misbehavior (5). Although many factors contribute to high suspension rates, we examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. We hypothesized that a punitive response to misbehavior can, ironically, alienate disaffected students and thus incite the sanskrit essays on festivals, destructive, oppositional behaviors it aims to prevent. A response that values students’ perspectives and maintains high-quality relationships in disciplinary interactions may improve outcomes. Much research shows that feeling respect for and being respected by university coursework authority figures can motivate people to follow rules enforced by those figures, especially in essays, conflicts (6). If teachers convey this respect while disciplining students, this may improve students’ behavior. Consistent with this hypothesis, the quality of task students’ relationships with teachers is one of the strongest predictors of classroom behavior (7).
Relationships of trust and on festivals respect may be especially important in adolescence. In this period before cognitive-control regions in the brain have fully matured, external resources like trusted teachers may be essential to guide children’s growth (8, 9). Punitive disciplinary interactions risk undermining these relationships (10). If students feel disrespected and subsequently misbehave, this may confirm in teachers’ minds that the gmat essays, student is a “troublemaker,” facilitating harsh responses to future misbehavior (11). Thus, a punitive approach to discipline may give rise to a self-perpetuating cycle of on festivals punishment and misbehavior (12). Three experiments tested whether teachers can be encouraged to adopt an empathic mindset about discipline and examined its impact on students. This mindset prioritizes valuing and understanding students’ experiences and negative feelings that give rise to misbehavior, sustaining positive relationships with misbehaving students, and working with students within trusting relationships to a five-paragraph essay requirements one could improve behavior (9). For example, perspective-taking, the cognitive component of empathy, may help teachers understand students’ experiences and internal states (13) and thus respond more appropriately to misbehavior (e.g., with greater concern for the needs of the student) (12, 14). Notably, even as many teachers are exposed to a default punitive approach to discipline (5), teachers also have, as a central plank of their profession, the goal to build and sustain positive relationships with students, especially struggling students (15). Essays On Festivals! The existence of this alternative mindset suggests that it may be possible through relatively modest means to ielts academic writing task encourage a different approach to student misbehavior. Sanskrit! We thus test whether an empathic mindset can change teachers’ practices, whether this improves students’ responses to discipline, and whether encouraging an empathic mindset in teachers can reduce suspension rates among students.
Experiment 1 tested whether a targeted message about empathic discipline would change teachers’ approach to college grandparents discipline. Thirty-nine K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y) were randomly assigned to an empathic- or a punitive-mindset condition. Teachers read a brief article, which reminded them either that “good teacher–student relationships are critical for students to learn self-control” (empathic mindset) or that “punishment is critical for teachers to take control of the sanskrit on festivals, classroom” (punitive mindset). Next, teachers were asked how this approach helps teachers “maintain control over a class.” Teachers then reviewed three counterbalanced incidents of minor misbehavior drawn from middle-school referral records (e.g., disrupting class by throwing away trash). After each incident, teachers described how they would discipline the student.
Last, they reported the likelihood they would consider the student a troublemaker (1, not at all; 7, extremely). As predicted, teachers’ disciplinary responses were less punitive and to meet length requirements one could more empathic in the empathic-mindset condition than in the punitive-mindset condition. Teachers were also less likely to label the student a troublemaker in sanskrit essays on festivals, the empathic-mindset condition (see Tables 1 and pay for university 2). Teacher responses to minor student misbehavior as a function of condition (experiment 1) ( n = 39) Coded disciplinary responses and sanskrit essays teacher judgments (experiment 1) ( n = 39) How do students respond to empathic discipline? In experiment 2, we asked college students ( n = 302) to gmat essays imagine themselves as middle-school students who had disrupted class by repeatedly walking around to throw away trash. Their teacher, Mrs.
Smith, responded in a manner reflective of each condition in experiment 1: by assigning detention and referring them to the principal’s office (punitive-discipline condition) or by asking them about their misbehavior and moving the wastebasket closer to their desk (empathic-discipline condition). Next, participants reported the respect they would have for essays on festivals the teacher (six items; e.g., “I think Mrs. Pet Store Plan! Smith deserves my respect”; ? = 0.85) and the motivation they would have to behave well in the future (two items; e.g., “It is sanskrit essays on festivals important to me that I follow rules in this class”; ? = 0.83) (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree). As predicted, college students reported that, as middle-school students, they would respect the teacher far more in the empathic-mindset than in the punitive-discipline condition ( M = 5.23, SD = 1.14 versus M = 2.47, SD = 1.09), t (300) = 20.98, P 0.001, d = 2.42. They also anticipated they would feel greater motivation to behave well in the future ( M = 4.38, SD = 1.41 versus M = 3.79, SD = 1.56), t (300) = 3.43, P 0.001, d = 0.40 (see Fig. 1). Moreover, consistent with our theory, the greater respect college students reported that they as middle-school students would have for the teacher statistically mediated the reconstruction, increase in their anticipated motivation to behave well in the future. Essays! Using mediation procedures with model 4 of the Statistical Package for success the Social Sciences (SPSS) macro mediation analysis package (PROCESS) (16) and 10,000 bias-corrected bootstrap resamples, we tested a model with “condition > respect (mediator) > behave well.” As noted, the total effect of sanskrit condition on students’ anticipated motivation to behave well was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.17, P = 0.001). In step 1, the total effect of condition on the mediator (respect) was significant ( b = 2.02, SE = 0.11, P 0.001).
In step 2, we regressed the dependent variable (behave well) on the mediator and condition. The effect of respect was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.08, P 0.001), and essays about the effect of on festivals condition was reduced ( b = –0.60, SE = 0.23, P = 0.011). In step 4, the predicted mediation (indirect path from condition > respect for teacher > motivation to reconstruction success essay behave well) was significant [ b = 1.19, SE = 0.19, confidence interval (CI) = 0.82, 1.58]. Sanskrit Essays! College students ( n = 302) who imagined themselves as middle-school students being disciplined in gmat essays, an empathic rather than a punitive manner reported that they would respect the teacher more and be more motivated to behave well in the future (experiment 2). The y axes represent the sanskrit essays, full range of the scales. Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Experiments 1 and 2 show that teachers can be encouraged to coursework take an empathic approach to discipline and that students report that such treatment motivates better behavior. Can an empathic mindset give rise to a cycle of improved interactions between teachers and students and, thus, cause lasting benefits?
Experiment 3, a longitudinal randomized placebo-controlled field experiment, tested whether encouraging an empathic mindset about discipline in teachers would reduce student suspension rates over an academic year. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals! Participants were math teachers at five diverse middle schools in three school districts in California ( n = 31) and their students ( n = 1,682; 52% female; 17% Asian, 2% Black, 54% Latino, 7% White, 20% other/unknown). This sample represents 91.12% of recruited faculty, 83% of plan math faculty, and essays on festivals 55.57% of students at these schools. For school characteristics, see Table S1. The intervention comprised one 45-min and one 25-min online module. Teachers were told that the purpose of the exercise was to review common but sometimes neglected wisdom about teaching and to collect their perspectives as experienced teachers on how best to handle difficult interactions with students, especially disciplinary encounters. Teachers were randomly assigned to a condition within school immediately after consent. Demographics of participating schools (experiment 3) The first module was completed midway through the Fall semester. First, teachers read an reconstruction success, article that described nonpejorative reasons why students sometimes misbehave in essays on festivals, class and how positive relationships with teachers can facilitate students’ growth (e.g., “[the] social and university biological changes of adolescence can make middle school students insecure … worries [about unfair treatment] can cause students to experience stress, to overreact, and sometimes to disengage from school”).
These materials discouraged the essays, labeling of misbehaving students as troublemakers. Instead, they encouraged teachers to understand and value students’ experiences and negative feelings that can cause misbehavior and to sustain positive relationships when students misbehave. Teachers were reminded that “a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and respected shows them that school is fair and they can grow and gmat essays succeed there.” These ideas were reinforced through stories from essays, students (e.g., “One day I got detention, and instead of reconstruction success and failure just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about what happened. He really listened to on festivals me. Pay For University! … It felt good to know I had someone I could trust in school. …”). Teachers then wrote how they incorporate or could incorporate these ideas in sanskrit, their own practice. These responses, they were told, would be “incorporated into gmat essays a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from your experiences and insights” (see SI Experiment 3 for details). This representation of the sanskrit, exercise and gmat essays interactive elements draws on other successful social–psychological interventions (17 ? ? –20). Teachers were treated as experts and agents of positive change for sanskrit on festivals others, not as recipients of success and failure remediation. They were exposed to powerful stories on which they elaborated in guided writing exercises, allowing them to take ownership of the essays on festivals, intervention message, to connect it to their own practice, and to advocate for it to others (21) (see SI Experiment 3 for details). (Students completed separate randomized materials at success essay, this time, which did not affect the primary outcomes examined here; SI Experiment 3 .)
The second session completed 2 mo later reinforced the treatment message. Teachers were reminded that “students’ feelings about and behavior in school can and do improve when teachers successfully convey the care and respect students crave.” They reviewed a story from essays on festivals, a teacher who described a teacher of to expand to meet requirements hers who had eased her worries about mistreatment by showing her respect and how she tried to convey the same respect to her students. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals! Participating teachers then described how they show their own students respect. Teachers also had their students complete surveys during this session, which assessed broad perceptions of the university coursework, school climate. The present study focused on sanskrit on festivals, the critical factor of perceived respect (“Teachers and other adults at my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree) (see SI Experiment 3 for details). It is important to essays note what the sanskrit on festivals, empathic-mindset intervention does not do. Even as this intervention encourages teachers to understand and value students’ perspectives, it does not ask teachers to share students’ perspective or to essays about think that that perspective is reasonable, which it may not be. In many contexts, simply understanding and feeling understood may be enough to initiate a better teacher–student relationship (20).
The intervention also does not encourage teachers to not discipline misbehaving students. Sanskrit Essays! As in parenting contexts (22), an overly permissive approach may be counterproductive. It may cause teachers to lose control of the class and college essays deny misbehaving children the understanding and sanskrit supportive feedback they need to improve. Instead, the reconstruction success essay, intervention encourages teachers to discipline students in a context of mutual understanding and trust. The control exercise was similar in form and sanskrit on festivals interactivity but discussed ways to writing use technology to promote learning (see SI Experiment 3 for details). This neutral comparison tests whether the sanskrit on festivals, empathic-mindset intervention can reduce suspensions compared with typical disciplinary practice. How did intervention-condition teachers describe how they would incorporate empathic approaches in ielts writing task, their practice? When asked how they “would like … to on festivals improve your relationships with your students?” teachers powerfully echoed the intervention themes: For example, “[I] greet every student at the door with a smile every day no matter what has occurred the day before”; “[I] answer their questions thoughtfully and respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been”; and “I NEVER hold grudges. Gmat Essays! I try to remember that they are all the son or daughter of someone who loves them more than anything in the world.
They are the sanskrit on festivals, light of essays about grandparents someone’s life!” (see SI Experiment 3 for essays details). The primary outcome was students’ year-long suspension rates. (Each school district recorded discipline data differently and primarily only gmat essays as year sums, so it was not possible to examine discipline outcomes across the full sample with greater granularity.) Examining official school records, a mixed-effect linear regression with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom (each teacher taught multiple classes) showed that students whose math teacher received the empathic-mindset intervention were half as likely to be suspended over the school year (4.6%) as students of sanskrit essays on festivals control teachers (9.8%) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, z = –3.33, P = 0.001; see Fig. 2). The effect remained significant controlling for student race, gender, and prior-year suspension status (OR = 0.49, z = –2.37, P = 0.018). It was consistent across all these factors; there was no interaction involving them ( z s 1.85, P s 0.05). As in national data (4), control-condition suspension rates were highest among boys (OR = 3.21, z = 4.16, P 0.001), African American and gmat essays Latino students (OR = 2.48, z = 2.30, P = 0.021), and students with a history of suspensions (OR = 17.34, z = 1,420.00, P 0.001). Sanskrit Essays! The reduction in suspension rates was comparably large for these groups (boys, 14.6–8.4%; African Americans and Latinos, 12.3–6.3%; previously suspended students, 51.2–29.4%). College Essays! Middle-school students ( n = 1,682) whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the on festivals, empathic-mindset intervention compared with randomized control materials were half as likely to be suspended over the school year (experiment 3).
Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Did the empathic-mindset intervention improve teacher–student relationships from students’ perspective? It did for the most at-risk students, those with a history of suspensions. Ielts Task! An initial mixed-effect linear regression on sanskrit on festivals, students’ reports of respect from teachers with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom revealed a main effect of prior suspension status, t (1,440) = –2.01, P = 0.045, and no main effect of reconstruction and failure condition ( t 1.25). (We used Satterthwaite approximations to estimate degrees of freedom with the lmerTest package in R.) However, a subsequent model revealed a significant Prior Suspension ? Treatment interaction, t (1,438) = 2.57, P = 0.010 (see Fig. 3). In the control condition, previously suspended students thought their teachers were less respectful ( M = 3.85) than did students with no history of suspension ( M = 4.53), t (1,434) = –3.20, P = 0.001, d = 0.56. This effect was eliminated by the intervention, t (1,430) 1. Students with a history of suspension felt more respected by their teachers when their math teacher had been treated ( M = 4.70) than when the teacher had not ( M = 3.85), t (1,439) = 2.68, P = 0.008, d = 0.77. Middle-school students ( n = 1,449) with a history of sanskrit essays suspension whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the empathic-mindset intervention perceived their teachers as more respectful of university coursework them 2 mo after the initial teacher intervention than students whose math teacher completed randomized control materials (experiment 3). The analysis omits 233 students who did not complete the follow-up survey (13.85%).
Attrition did not differ by students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. The present research demonstrates how a punitive climate can create in sanskrit essays on festivals, teachers a punitive approach to discipline and pet store plan how this approach undermines students’ feelings of respect for teachers and essays on festivals motivation to reconstruction success and failure behave well in essays, class (experiments 1 and university coursework 2). A brief, online intervention to essays on festivals encourage an empathic mindset in teachers about discipline halved year-long suspension rates among 1,682 students in five diverse middle schools (experiment 3). Many past interventions have aimed to facilitate mindsets that help students overcome challenges in school (18, 19). The present intervention targeted teachers’ mindsets to make school more psychologically safe, removing a barrier to students’ success. Importantly, the academic writing task, empathic-mindset intervention did not attempt to teach teachers new skills for interacting with students or introduce new policies for how to essays on festivals discipline students (23).
Nor did it attempt to build students’ self-control or social–emotional skills, another common approach to success and failure essay improving student behavior (24). Like learning any new skill or program, such approaches may require ongoing coaching and essays on festivals practice. Instead, we assumed that teachers were capable of building better relationships with students and that students could behave more positively with more supportive treatment. The intervention simply encouraged teachers to academic view discipline as an opportunity to facilitate mutual understanding and better relationships and sanskrit empowered teachers to do so in a manner effective for them and their students. Pet Store! The findings suggest that, at least in on festivals, the school contexts examined here, punitive mindsets about discipline serve as a critical barrier to reconstruction and failure essay better teacher–student relationships. Moreover, insofar as relatively brief, online modules can encourage teachers to take a more empathic approach, the sanskrit on festivals, results suggest the potential for gmat essays effective, scalable intervention to sanskrit on festivals improve discipline outcomes. However, our emphasis on gmat essays, teachers’ mindsets does not diminish the importance of punitive discipline policies; rather, it illustrates one reason why such policies matter. Essays! They create a context that discourages teachers from prioritizing building strong relationships with students at critical junctures. Efforts to change discipline policies and to encourage empathic mindsets about discipline thus go hand-in-hand. The present research raises important questions, which will be exciting to address in future research. Business! First, a notable finding was that the randomization of a single teacher to sanskrit treatment versus control condition caused a reduction in suspensions that arise from misbehavior in all school settings; indeed, supplementary analyses provide evidence that the about, intervention effect extended beyond a reduction in suspensions referred by sanskrit on festivals math teachers ( SI Experiment 3 ). Although striking, this finding is college about consistent with research suggesting the importance for children of having at sanskrit essays, least one teacher in business plan, school whom they trust (20).
It will be important to further understand how, when, and why improvement in a single teacher–student relationship causes reverberating benefits for students. Second, it is important to further explore the sanskrit essays, psychological and social–relational changes induced by the intervention and how these improve discipline. Essays Grandparents! Using a chain of experiments, the present research identified key causal relationships (25) linking an on festivals, empathic mindset and treatment to greater feelings and perceptions of respect and business plan reduced suspensions. An important next step is to include periodic assessments of teachers’ and students’ attitudes and on festivals developing relationships and observations of their interactions in future trials. Such measures may further clarify how and when an empathic approach to discipline can become enduring in teachers’ minds and embedded in teacher–student interactions and reconstruction success and failure essay support statistical tests of mediation (26). They may also shed light on consequences beyond discipline, like for school engagement and sanskrit on festivals learning. Ideally, these assessments will be unobtrusive so as not to lead teachers to feel scrutinized or to undercut the honorific representation of the pet store business plan, exercise, which could undermine intervention effectiveness.
In changing teachers’ mindsets to improve a social system, the present research suggests a new frontier for psychological intervention. Sanskrit On Festivals! Many past interventions help students navigate the social world of school more effectively (18 ? –20, 27). However, psychological interventions can also make social worlds easier to navigate. Racial-minority students can be held back by teachers’ feelings of one could dissimilarity to them (28). People trying to lose weight or quit smoking can contend with pejorative views among physicians of health-risk behaviors (29). In circumstances like these, the mindsets of a few can undermine the outcomes of many. Where else can we alter the mindsets of powerful social actors to sanskrit essays on festivals improve the functioning of task 1 format systems as a whole? Empathic Discipline Session 1: Sample Materials. Empathic discipline session 1: Introduction of the activity (excerpt). Sanskrit Essays! “Teachers are always looking for gmat essays new ways to teach and to essays better serve their students. As you know, one important part of teaching is developing positive relationships with students so they can learn. Our own research team has been studying the gmat essays, role of teacher–student relationships in students’ motivation, learning, and sanskrit essays on festivals behavior.
This research suggests that how teachers and students interact, especially during the critical period of adolescence, can have long-lasting effects on students’ motivation and success. The relationships students build with their middle-school teachers can influence students’ motivation and behavior in class and their attitudes and college success beyond. In this web module, we will share with you some of this research. Then, we will ask you for your input as a professional educator. We are especially interested in your thoughts about how teachers like you can and do use these ideas to have better interactions with students and to improve their lives.
Your input will be incorporated into a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from your experience and on festivals insights. Thank you for your time and help.” Empathic discipline session 1: Empathic-mindset article (excerpt). “Almost everyone has a personal story about a great teacher who influenced his or her life. For some, it’s a teacher who reached out and helped them feel both comfortable and respected in university coursework, school. For others, it’s a teacher who helped them see they could reach a higher standard, even when they doubted themselves. As teachers, these stories warm our hearts.
They inspire us to create a positive setting that brings out the best in our students. Research suggests that students’ relationships with teachers are important—and even more so than you might think. Children who experience caring relationships with adults grow up to be more respectful and caring people. At home, a kind and responsive parent shows a child that their family is good and trustworthy. Sanskrit Essays! In school, a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and respected shows them that school is fair and they can grow and succeed there. Of course, creating positive relationships is not always easy—especially with middle-school students. The social and biological changes of adolescence can make middle-school students insecure and sensitive. Writing 1 Format! Yet students’ attitudes about school and behavior can and do improve when teachers successfully convey the caring and respect students crave.
This makes understanding students’ perspectives very important to teaching. The more teachers understand how students perceive teachers’ actions, the better equipped teachers are to interact with students in essays on festivals, ways that nurture their growth into writing task responsible, motivated young adults. Essays! Many teachers worry about students disengaging from reconstruction success and failure essay, school during middle school and seek out a variety of strategies to sanskrit essays on festivals help their students. Adolescence is a time of new worries and pressures. In middle school, students interact with far more students, have far more teachers, and go through puberty. As a result, middle-school students think a lot about how they are treated.
They worry about being treated unfairly, and gmat essays they are sensitive to any sign that others—especially authority figures, like teachers—are dealing them an unfair hand. Essays On Festivals! These worries can cause students to experience stress, to overreact, and pay for university coursework sometimes to disengage from school. Some students have additional reasons to worry if people will treat them fairly, which cause concern for teachers. For instance, students from poor families or from ethnic minority backgrounds may hear discouraging stories from friends, parents, or the media about how their group is treated. Essays On Festivals! So it’s reasonable for these students to be especially worried about how they will be treated in middle school. And this is an additional challenge for pay for coursework teachers when forming positive relationships with these students.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample student stories. “In middle school, I didn’t feel like I belonged. Essays! It seemed like the teachers always called on a five-paragraph essay length requirements, the other students. So I didn’t pay attention in class and sometimes I got in trouble. One day I got detention, and instead of essays on festivals just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about what happened. He really listened to me.
And then he told me that he had trouble sometimes in middle school but that it gets better. It felt good to know I had someone I could trust in school.” “One time, after I got in college, trouble in seventh grade, I still remember how my teacher took me aside later and listened to my side of the story. She repeated what I said back to me to be sure she understood what I was saying. Sanskrit! Then she explained why she still had to give me a detention because I was disrupting class. Even though I still got a detention, I was glad that she didn’t just dismiss what I had to say, like other teachers sometimes did. After that, I actually felt better in school because I knew I had someone to talk to.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample writing prompts and teacher responses. “What are some of the ways that you try to build positive relationships with your students, or things that you would like to try in the future to grandparents improve your relationships with your students? Please illustrate your answer with examples from sanskrit essays on festivals, your own experience and of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names).
Consider especially circumstances when it is most important to reach out to students, for instance situations when students are struggling academically, not participating in class, or are getting in trouble.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “Answer their questions thoughtfully and respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been.” “Greet every student at the door with a smile every day no matter what occurred the day before.” “After school one day, a student approaches you and pet store business plan tells you that he felt like he was unfairly disciplined for sanskrit essays on festivals chewing gum in class. Earlier that week, you saw the student chewing something in reconstruction success and failure, class after you had warned him not to chew gum at school. You sent the student to the office for disrupting the class. Now he tells you that he feels that he was not treated fairly. How would you respond to this student? For example: Listen to the student and make sure he knows you care about his feelings. Explain to him why you had to on festivals enforce the rule.” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “In this situation I would ask the gmat essays, student to sit down and we would have a conversation both sitting down. Essays On Festivals! I would ask him why exactly he felt he was unfairly treated.
I would repeat this back to him and say I was sorry he felt this way. I would remind him I did warn him earlier in the week and ask if he remembered this. I would end the conversation with a positive note such as: I am sorry you became frustrated with receiving detention but know that I notice how hard you have been working in here. Success Essay! Keep up that positive work habit.” Control Session 1: Sample Materials. Control session 1: Control article (excerpt). “Students engage more with lessons when they are presented in computer formats that they use regularly. Research suggests that most teachers use some forms of technology to essays on festivals improve students’ experience in class and to facilitate learning. Essays About! Many teachers believe that showing the details of materials in a presentation or allowing students to research a subject themselves supports their understanding. Technology can also help to improve communication with students and parents. Some small changes in the way technology is used in the classroom can prove to sanskrit essays be very useful to keep students interested and help them to learn class materials.” Control session 1: Sample student stories. “I liked when the teacher used the university coursework, projector in my class. It was more fun than just a lecture. The work was more clear and I think my teacher made more sense.
It was easier to focus in class. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals! And being able to email my homework to my teachers is university coursework great. I think it saves everyone a lot of time. It also helps me keep track of my stuff for when tests come around.” “We get to search the net to sanskrit get information for homework. We also get to success and failure see images about the subjects we discuss in class. Essays! It helps.
I can view videos, slideshows, and essay to meet length requirements other media to help me understand everything. And one of my teachers has a website which helps a lot. I can just go to her webpage and see a calendar for sanskrit on festivals homework and gmat essays check my grades. Of course we use email a lot too.” Control session 1: Sample writing prompts and teacher responses. Sanskrit On Festivals! “What are some of the college essays grandparents, ways that you try to sanskrit use technology in your classes or things that you would like to try in the future to make more use of technology? Please illustrate your answer with examples from your own experience and of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names). Consider especially circumstances when it is most important to keep students interested, for instance when students spend a lot of college about grandparents time on the internet or students have a hard time understanding difficult lessons.” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “I use technology every day to plan, teach, and to keep students motivated and sanskrit essays on festivals engaged.
Teacher planning: 1. College Grandparents! Lesson plans, 2. Power Point presentations, 3. Essays On Festivals! Document camera/overhead projector. Student Engagement: 1. Interactive websites, 2. To Expand Essay To Meet One Could! Homework tutorials on internet, 3. Online textbook, 4. Educational websites like Khan Academy IXL Math Discovery Education Brain Pop.” “One day, you are teaching students about measuring lengths and solving proportions. Sanskrit! You want to show visual examples and give students the opportunity to pet store business exercise with the new materials. On Festivals! Also, you want to assign a homework assignment that students should return within the next couple of days. What do you do?” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “After explaining concepts with my document camera and drawings I would have students use computers to design their own related math problems and then require each student to to expand a five-paragraph essay length explain its solution. Students could email the completed assignment to sanskrit on festivals me and use web research as well as examples from the college essays about, internet for the project.
Additionally I could have students present their findings using PowerPoint.” Empathic-Mindset Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and Sample Teacher Response. Essays On Festivals! “‘When I was a child, I remember worrying about how I would be treated by university teachers at my school. But I will always remember Ms. McBride, who treated me with respect and essays on festivals trust. She showed me that teachers could make all the difference in how students feel about school. Now, I make a point of treating my students with respect and I find that they respect me more in return.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is success doing in essays on festivals, your own interactions with students? Please explain in detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I am always doing this with my students.
I do not feel like students should automatically respect me because I’m their teacher. I feel I need to earn my students’ respect and trust. I know many of them have had poor experiences with past teachers so I need to prove to my students that I am there for them and will not let them fail.” “Respect is the most important thing in creating positive relationships with people, especially students. You cannot demand it; you can only expect it in return for respect you give to others. It is also extremely important to continue to give respect to about grandparents your students despite the lack of respect some of them may give you. This allows for sanskrit a conversation with them about how you treat them on a daily basis and ask them to academic writing task 1 format look at sanskrit on festivals, how they treat you. Pet Store! Overall respect runs my classroom.
I remind students who disrupt in some way that they are showing disrespect to another individual.” Control Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and on festivals Sample Teacher Responses. “‘When I was a child, I remember having to stay after school to get extra help and lessons were only taught on chalk boards. But now technology allows us to teach students more effectively. For example, I can contact students outside of class through email. Now, I also use web-based math games to pay for coursework enhance their learning.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is sanskrit doing in your own use of technology with students? Please explain in writing, detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I use web-based math games to enhance their learning. I can refer them to on festivals specific sites that will help with the gmat essays, skill we are working on in class. Essays! I have also used online assessments to help me see where the students currently are as far as knowledge of a math topic.” “I use edmodo to communicate the homework with my students as well as the academic writing task 1 format, school website to post the homeworks.” During session 1, all students completed randomized materials.
These focused on the importance of sanskrit understanding teachers’ perspectives about disciplinary action or on practicing good study skills. There was no effect of academic task student condition on suspension rates (OR = 1.43, z = 1.70, P = 0.09) and no interaction with teacher condition (OR = 1.03, z 1). The effect of the sanskrit essays, empathic-mindset intervention on suspension rates remained significant controlling for student condition (OR = 2.23, z = –3.02, P = 0.003). Gmat Essays! In session 2, students completed a series of measures assessing broad perception of the school climate (17). These included six items assessing trust in school (e.g., “Teachers at my school give out fair grades” and essays “Students in my racial group are treated fairly by grandparents the teachers and other adults at sanskrit on festivals, [school name] Middle School”) (1, very much disagree; 6, very much agree) (? = 0.80).
There was no effect of the condition on an average of the about grandparents, assessed measures, t (1,446) 1. For the purpose of the sanskrit on festivals, present study, we focused on and failure essay, the one item that directly assessed the critical construct of respect: the extent to essays on festivals which students reported feeling respected by essays about grandparents teachers (“Teachers and other adults at my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree). Supplementary Analyses of essays on festivals Student Suspension Rates. To Expand Essay To Meet! The primary analyses focused on student suspension rates that arose from misbehavior across school settings. Could the reduction in student suspension rates have arisen from a change only in math class where the teacher was randomized to condition, for instance as a result of improved behavior or reduced discipline restricted to this class? To address this question, we examined data from the only school that identified the faculty member who referred a student for a given suspension: school 2 (Table S1), the second largest school in the study, accounting for 33% of the full student sample. On Festivals! In this school, students whose math teacher was treated versus not were 55% less likely to be suspended from any class (treatment, 5.4%; control, 12.1%; OR = 0.41, logit = –0.88, z = –2.10, P = 0.035), controlling for demographics (OR = 0.50, logit = –0.69, z = –2.38, P = 0.017). This effect was not due to a change only in math class. Only 7.4% of suspensions were referred by math teachers. Furthermore, all students referred for suspension by a math teacher were also referred for suspension by other faculty. Thus, running the analysis in ielts task, school 2 even excluding suspensions referred by math teachers yields an identical reduction in suspension rates. This analysis suggests that, at least in this school, the intervention led to a broad improvement in student behavior across diverse school contexts, not to sanskrit either an improvement in behavior restricted to math class or to more permissive discipline practices among treated math teachers.
All ethical protocols, including informed consent from all participants, were followed in conducting the three experiments, and approval was obtained from Stanford University’s Institutional Review Board and a principal at each school (experiment 3). A total of 39 K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y; M age = 41; 73% male; 92% White, 3% Asian, 8% Black, 3% unknown) recruited from the websites of school districts across the country took part and were randomized to reconstruction success essay a two-cell (punitive mindset vs. empathic mindset) design. All teachers read that “misbehavior can disrupt the flow of the class and distract other students … teachers can work best when students behave properly and pay attention in essays, class.” Next, teachers in the empathic-mindset condition read the gmat essays, following: “Good teacher–student relationships help students learn how to essays on festivals appropriately conduct themselves in the classroom … [they] help students understand self-control at reconstruction success, the time of a disruption, which can improve interactions with the student that day.” Teachers in on festivals, the punitive-mindset condition read the following: “Consequences lead students to appropriately conduct themselves in the classroom … punishment allows teachers to take control of the college, class at the time of a disruption, which can help to get the class back on essays on festivals, track that day.” Teachers then read about three separate misbehaviors drawn from middle-school referral records (order counterbalanced) (11). After each incident, teachers described how they would respond to the incident: – “Darnell is consistently disrupting the pet store business, class environment by strolling around the essays on festivals, classroom at random intervals, getting tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class, throwing items away constantly; in general, Darnell circulates around the room and up and reconstruction and failure down the rows to on festivals see what other students are doing, the gmat essays, students have eyes on him, and he disrupts the sanskrit on festivals, flow of the lecture or activity the class was participating in.” – “Darnell is sleeping in essays about, class. Essays! You tell him to pick his head up and get to work. He only picks his head up.
He chooses to rest it on his hand and continue to sleep. So you ask him one more time, and again, Darnell refuses to do work. You ask him to leave class and go to the office to tell them that he won’t do his work and chose to sleep instead. He refuses to do this as well.” – “Darnell is sitting in the back of the college about grandparents, classroom. He is not paying attention to the lessons that you are teaching in class. Instead, Darnell is talking to sanskrit on festivals other students. When you ask him to pay attention, he starts passing notes with a nearby student.” Coding teacher responses from gmat essays, pilot study. Two coders blind to sanskrit essays the condition reviewed teachers’ responses and recorded whether or not each disciplinary action involved ( i ) each of three punitive responses: ( a ) assigning detention, ( b ) threatening to punish the student, or ( c ) involving an administrator (e.g., principal); and ( ii ) each of two empathic responses: ( d ) talking with the success essay, student about sanskrit on festivals why he or she was misbehaving or ( e ) rearranging the pet store, classroom to essays on festivals accommodate the student (for sample responses, see Table 1). There was moderate agreement among raters ( ?s = 0.54–0.81; see Table S2).
Thus, we averaged the two judges’ ratings of each response category. We then averaged across the three incidents to writing provide the likelihood the student received a given response per disciplinary incident. Finally, we summed the likelihood of the three punitive responses and sanskrit on festivals the two empathic responses to pet store plan provide the on festivals, average number of punitive and empathic responses a student received per incident. We then submitted the data to pay for university t tests (see Table 2). Interrater reliability (experiment 1) To examine how students would respond to teachers who used an empathic compared with a punitive approach to sanskrit essays discipline, we asked college students ( n = 302; 51% female; 48% White, 13% Black, 13% Asian, 19% Latino, 6% Other, 1% unknown) to imagine having committed a single infraction as a middle-school student and to expand one could having received either an empathic or a punitive teacher response, based on sanskrit on festivals, the responses provided in experiment 1. The infraction and teacher responses by pay for university coursework condition were as follows: (For the punitive condition) “You leave your seat to get tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs.
Smith assigned 1 day of detention to you and threatens to tell the sanskrit, principal about your misbehavior. Ielts Academic 1 Format! Later, you get up and throw items away in the wastebasket on the other side of the room. Sanskrit On Festivals! Mrs. Smith has the principal talk to gmat essays you about your misbehavior.” (For the empathic-discipline condition) “You leave your seat to get tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs. Smith asks you why you are moving around the class so much. Essays! Later, you get up and throw items away in the wastebasket on the other side of the room. Mrs.
Smith rearranges the room so that the wastebasket and tissue box are closer to your desk.” Students completed six items assessing the extent to which they respected the teacher: “I think Mrs. Pet Store! Smith deserves my respect”; “I think Mrs. Smith is a fair teacher”; and “I get along with Mrs. Smith” (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree); and sanskrit essays on festivals “Mrs. Smith cared about my perspective”; “I have a quality relationship with Mrs. Smith”; and reconstruction success essay “Mrs. Smith is biased against me” (reverse-coded) (1, not at all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.85). On Festivals! Next, participants completed two items assessing their motivation to behave well in class in the future: “It is important to me that I follow rules in this class” and “I want to behave in college about grandparents, this class” (1, not at all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.83).
We recruited all math faculty at three participating middle schools and, at the request of the principals, 67% and 50% of math faculty at the remaining two schools (34 in sanskrit, total). Three recruited teachers did not begin the module and thus were not assigned to reconstruction essay a condition or exposed to sanskrit essays on festivals experimental materials, leaving a sample of college essays 31 teachers (77% female; 39% sixth grade, 29% seventh grade, 32% eighth grade). This represents a teacher participation rate of sanskrit on festivals 91.12% and 83.4% of all math faculty at the five schools. Schools provided data for ielts writing task 1 format 2,069 students. Data from 387 students were not included in the analyses: 172 were not taught by sanskrit on festivals a teacher randomized to a condition, and 215 could not be matched to school discipline records for the year before or the year of the intervention (they likely transferred to or from the school district within the ielts task, 2-y period).
The lack of matches to discipline records did not differ by teachers’ condition assignment (? 2 1.75, nonsignificant). All remaining students were retained in sanskrit, the primary analysis ( n = 1,682) (see Table S1). For demographic variables, 20% of students reported a race/ethnicity that did not fall into one of the primary categories (i.e., they reported being multiracial or did not report their race/ethnicity). Task! They were treated as a category in analyses including student race. Three students did not report their gender. They were omitted from analyses including student gender. Thus, 1,679 students were included in analyses controlling for student race, student gender, and prior suspension status.
A total of 233 students did not complete the sanskrit, follow-up survey assessing respect perceived from teachers (13.85% of participating students). This attrition did not differ by students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Analyses of pay for university coursework this outcome omit these students, leaving a sample of essays 1,449 students. This approach to missing data maximizes the transparency of college about our analyses and keeps it as close as possible to our experimental design. Teachers in each condition completed two online sessions (a 45-min session in late Fall and a 25-min session in on festivals, early Winter) at their convenience within a 2-wk period. In the first session, teachers read an pet store business, introduction to the activity, an article including stories from students describing their experience in school and relationships with teachers, and responded to several writing prompts. In the second session, teachers in both conditions read another article about the same topic that included a story from essays on festivals, a teacher’s perspective. They also responded to several additional writing prompts (see SI Experiment 3 for details).
We thank C. Dweck, J. Zaki, the pay for, Dweck–Walton laboratory, and sanskrit on festivals the Race and gmat essays Social Inequality Lab for feedback; the participating school districts, administrators, and sanskrit on festivals teachers for their time and effort; the New Teacher Center for facilitating this project; and the Project for Education Research That Scales (PERTS) for technical and pet store plan logistical support.
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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of gender inequality in the United States.
While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to understand social causation more generally. We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the sanskrit, causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to that section. click on a five-paragraph essay to meet length requirements a topic to go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the essays on festivals, Topics and Materials. We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in to expand length requirements one could their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gender inequality over essays on festivals the past half century has been extraordinary.
Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gmat essays, gender inequality and varied ideas about what causes might be decisive. Essays. We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and verify the causes of social phenomena. Pay For University. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. On Festivals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of pay for university coursework, gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to on festivals develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of pet store, gender inequality. Essays On Festivals. (Note: this class does not have an plan exam nor a final paper.)
All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to sanskrit essays our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. Pay For Coursework. To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to sanskrit on festivals the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the to expand a five-paragraph length requirements, writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to sanskrit on festivals discuss them). In each of these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.
Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in the online version of the course syllabus. Gmat Essays. Excerpts from Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of sanskrit essays on festivals, Gender Inequality (book manuscript by RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of gender, can (and probably should) pick up the basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on business gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.
The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in relationship to them. A note on the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for essays, related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is business plan, helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the sanskrit essays, hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the search will only examine what is shown on ielts academic writing the page at sanskrit essays, that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the hidden sections to pet store show everything on the page by clicking the § symbol at essays, the top of the page. (To restore the page to gmat essays the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look).
The table of contents at the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Introduction. What do we mean by on festivals, gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and talk about and failure essay, gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to essays be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and to expand to meet length requirements one could men are unequal in every conceivable way in sanskrit endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and academic 1 format subjective experience.
So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? No task for sanskrit essays, the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.
81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for pay for, Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on theories about sanskrit on festivals, why and how things happen in coursework the world. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.
Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is essays, obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of on festivals, this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. Pet Store Plan. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. Thinking Tools . Sanskrit. The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into gmat essays possible comparisons to produce an answer. Examples of on festivals, such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in summer than winter?, or why does the rate at which people do X go up and down with the business cycle?
The underlying idea is simple but powerful. If we are trying to reconstruction success and failure essay explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in sanskrit the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to pay for the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and sanskrit essays on festivals men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to business act in a similar way. Figuring out essays what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to reconstruction and failure provide a causal explanation. Sanskrit Essays. Think about what happens to gmat essays people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Essays On Festivals. Here the ielts academic writing, basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to conformity and sanskrit on festivals nonconformity. What causes differences in dress codes across cultures?
What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of pet store plan, dress? The clothing characteristic of sanskrit essays on festivals, each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and between different parts of the to expand a five-paragraph essay to meet one could, world. But seemingly everywhere men and sanskrit essays on festivals women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.
Why do the success and failure, expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and essays men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to gmat essays formal dances. Sanskrit Essays. Our efforts to find causes behind any phenomena are improved by looking at variations. If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on what might produce this variance in success essay gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern. On Festivals. The explanation for 1 format, the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only sanskrit on festivals women and men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups.
If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into explaining the pet store plan, difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of sanskrit essays on festivals, sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and ielts academic writing task 1 format men. If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Sanskrit. Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. Ernest Nagel. 1960.
Determinism in History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from university coursework, Sports Sociological Forum , 12. March 1997:11-35. III. How is essays, gender inequality symbolized and reproduced in gmat essays everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out gender in their day to day lives. Sanskrit. We want to think about the most basic questions. A Five-paragraph Length. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men?
How do all these private individual actions when taken together over sanskrit essays time influence the understanding of gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . A Five-paragraph Essay To Meet Length. Using a typical setting where women and men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the essays, role of gender in these interactions and essays about grandparents where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and men typically engage each other. For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there.
First, we need to read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the essays, context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from pet store, her argument and when they might not. As we work on essays our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to pet store think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to sanskrit essays on festivals be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the a five-paragraph essay to meet length, phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. Sanskrit Essays. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters.
We can broaden the range of the examples we use to ielts task 1 format think about these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the essays, age or race of the people, whether the interaction is academic writing 1 format, cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by sanskrit, these other circumstances that seem relevant to length requirements interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in our setting? If we believe the answer is essays, yes, then we consider how and why. Analogously, we want to think about the ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions.
For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about ielts task 1 format, all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . Sanskrit On Festivals. We can take the analysis of interactions another step by considering how the influence of gender on these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the business plan, relative privacy of the sanskrit on festivals, interaction) or the gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the exceptions.
When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. College. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to sanskrit essays fall short. Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of behavior in business plan the context we examine? Our central goal here is to explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of sanskrit, Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of pet store, their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol.
4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. 2, No. On Festivals. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Pay For University. Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies?
And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to sanskrit explaining the gmat essays, persistence of gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of dominance varies greatly. Sanskrit Essays. This raises the to expand a five-paragraph, very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. Please read the Basics of Causal Descriptions on a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Essays On Festivals. Isolate what you believe are the most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of material that you can look at as you need to deepen and sharpen your arguments.
It can be helpful to look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Pet Store Plan. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . When we cannot hope to sanskrit essays research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. College Grandparents. This crew is evenly divided between women and men, the women and men have similar credentials and accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of authority. The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of essays on festivals, college students today. This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Unfortunately, the ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. Coursework. So they must start life on this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to pet store plan reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by sanskrit, dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status?
What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. About Grandparents. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Evolutionary Psychology and on festivals similar approaches : The debates over college about evolutionary psychology - in sanskrit essays on festivals general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess.
Here are some starting points for learning the basics. Academic Task 1 Format. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and on festivals critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the more general venture), Downes and Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. In A Companion to Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.
A Guided Tour of Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds. Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and John S. Grove. The Compatibility of Hunting and on festivals Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the academic writing, Philippines. Essays On Festivals. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of and failure, Sexual Dimorphism in Humans. Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no.
10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. Sanskrit On Festivals. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and reconstruction success essay Louise Barrett. Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins.
A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. Sanskrit On Festivals. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.
Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the Sky.a€?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. Reconstruction Success. The Early Development of essays, Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for Examining Case Examples of Women in gmat essays Less-Developed Countries. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. 36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.
22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in pet store plan Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Huber. Comparative Gender Stratification. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. Handbook of the Sociology of pet store plan, Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. Sanskrit Essays. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.
Population, Warfare, and pay for university the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.
80, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of essays on festivals, a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. College About. 80, No.
3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of sanskrit, Anthropology Vol. 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on 1 format Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.
Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. On Festivals. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.
We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . A Five-paragraph Essay Length One Could. We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. Each of the 1 format, readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Sanskrit On Festivals. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Writing 1 Format. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to sanskrit explain different causal problems. Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of university, what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to sanskrit be explained, the second around the causes. First approach . We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to college grandparents be explained.
Then, we organize these causal problems in sanskrit a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . We start by identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of gmat essays, a similar theme, and which are competing versus complementary. For each of these, after summarizing the causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the framework is supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of essays on festivals, competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to coursework think about not only what is considered by sanskrit essays, the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Gmat Essays. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to sanskrit identify all the gmat essays, relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of each causal argument and essays determine how to success and failure essay present that clearly (even if the original source is inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and present them in a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of sanskrit, analytical overview is essay requirements, rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and on festivals thoroughly.
At this stage we are not aspiring to a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of university, Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.
Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of sanskrit essays on festivals, Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. Success And Failure Essay. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Essays. Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.
How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of coursework, Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. G. Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Essays. Father-Child Relationships and to meet length requirements the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. American Journal of gmat essays, Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Essays. Joann Vanek. Reconstruction Success And Failure. Time Spent in Housework. On Festivals. Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.
Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. Ielts Academic Writing Task. FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. The Journal of Political Economy , Vol. 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.
1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in essays on festivals Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of and failure essay, Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. What is the role of sanskrit essays on festivals, sex differences in the functioning and perpetuation of gender inequality? Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to these distinct attributes.
Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on success and failure gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the essays on festivals, arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of gmat essays, essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essays, essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Pay For. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for this task.
This instance or aspect of essays, gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is plausible. For example, the ielts writing task 1 format, facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the sanskrit on festivals, selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to reconstruction explaining such social phenomena. The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an argument. Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the perspectives. The five types of explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for the relevant facet of inequality from each of the following perspectives.
Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to engage different responses to the problem of sanskrit essays, essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an pet store business explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by making women and men act differently. Essays On Festivals. For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of superior strength. Reconstruction Success Essay. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is sanskrit essays on festivals, usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.
Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the pet store business plan, inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the sanskrit, emergence or persistence of the selected aspect of gender inequality. For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of university coursework, their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in essays on festivals want of success and failure essay, a protector, leading them to defer to sanskrit essays on festivals husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. A Five-paragraph Essay To Meet. The key for this type of on festivals, explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and social organization that lead to gender inequality. These types of explanations have essentialist origins in a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the pay for, essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and essays on festivals men – one that is neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences – initiates or preserves the aspect of to expand a five-paragraph essay one could, gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an sanskrit essays enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and success this psychological condition induces wives to sanskrit essays defer to their husbands. Pay For University Coursework. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business.
This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the sanskrit on festivals, society or social context where the ielts academic, inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of sanskrit on festivals, inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects. Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for reconstruction and failure, child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and sanskrit on festivals power favoring men. This type of essay, explanation focuses on the consequences of essays on festivals, beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered.
For example, some might argue that for families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and a five-paragraph essay leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of sanskrit essays on festivals, Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in to expand length spouse inequality, as an indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the sanskrit, one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the reconstruction, mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the sanskrit essays on festivals, above types of explanation would think are reasonable. College Essays. It is often hardest to sanskrit conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the writing, capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of this exercise is to examine how it is possible to essays devise a range of pay for coursework, alternative causal explanations of sanskrit essays, gender inequality stressing some mechanism of sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is gmat essays, rather hard. The difference arguments run the sanskrit essays on festivals, full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.
The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to make the immediate causal process eschew differences, but to to meet requirements avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Sanskrit. Econometrica, Vol.
77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and business plan Feminist Psychology.
Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of essays, Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. Ielts Writing Task. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Sanskrit On Festivals. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. 23, No.
4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. Valian, V. (1999). The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.
Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Gmat Essays. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).
Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Essays On Festivals. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980.
Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs: Journal of gmat essays, Women in Culture and on festivals Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and essay Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 519-531. Nussbaum, M. Sanskrit Essays. C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45.
Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and about the Causal Idioms of Postmodern Feminist Theory. Political Research Quarterly , Vol. Sanskrit On Festivals. 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.
649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. Coursework. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.
Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality. American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in essays on festivals multiple ways in the study of gender inequality.
Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for business, inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and sanskrit essays practice of sexuality, and others have tried to about theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and sanskrit essays effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of gmat essays, possible explanations from the following perspectives. In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and essays weaknesses.
Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the pay for, biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the on festivals, emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. Gmat Essays. A Fictional Difference - Try to sanskrit on festivals explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real. This includes explaining why the academic task 1 format, fictional belief in this difference would arise and become prevalent. Sanskrit. Secondary effect of gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for essays grandparents, this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into the above categories?
Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the others? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]
The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the relationship between one aspect of sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about what matters and why. This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort. So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of sanskrit essays on festivals, some part of the essays about grandparents, relationship between inequality and sexuality. We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is limited. Sanskrit On Festivals. The aim is to give a reasonable first sense of how the and failure, proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting. However, it may help if the selected facet of sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.
Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the chosen sexuality characteristic relative to gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at essays on festivals, least three scholarly works. These may be part of the essay length, common readings, any of the other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the sanskrit on festivals, specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the academic writing task 1 format, following three parts: First, we lay out the essays on festivals, causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by college essays, identifying reasonable causes? And why is this important enough to sanskrit on festivals merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to gmat essays be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to essays consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship.
When discussing those who might disagree, we want to university coursework be as specific as possible about what criticism we would expect from each of these opponents and essays on festivals how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to college about construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to gender inequality, and to assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in sanskrit essays on festivals our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of academic writing task 1 format, Two Decades of sanskrit essays on festivals, Research. The Journal of Sex Research v. 40 no. 1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and reconstruction Use. Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. Sanskrit. 30, No. Reconstruction Success And Failure Essay. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.
Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Sanskrit. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and gmat essays the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.
An Incitement to Discourse: Sociology and the History of pay for university, Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. Sanskrit Essays. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor.
Annual Review of pay for university coursework, Anthropology , Vol. Sanskrit On Festivals. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. Reconstruction Success And Failure Essay. A., Peplau, L. A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the essays on festivals, History of Sexuality in the U.S. The Journal of Sex Research , Vol. College Essays About. 27, No. Sanskrit. 1, Feminist Perspectives on Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.
95-109 Michael W. Reconstruction. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in Here Somewhere: Examining the sanskrit essays on festivals, Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. Pet Store. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.
Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and essays on festivals Women Do It Differently. Coursework. The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. Essays On Festivals. 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an gmat essays Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. Sociological Theory, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.
107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of pet store, Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. A. (2006). Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.
Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and intimidation in essays on festivals the relationships between men and business women? Most theoretical approaches to gender inequality suggest that violence between women and sanskrit men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of task 1 format, gender inequality or, alternatively, is sanskrit essays on festivals, a cause of inequality. The separate roles of gmat essays, rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question. Much research and sanskrit essays argument has also been focused on the question of to meet one could, women's aggressive impulses and sanskrit on festivals actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for why women do not engage in essay sexual harassment or sexual violence at on festivals, rates similar to those of men.
Here, our strategy is to success and failure essay reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the sanskrit on festivals, (elevated) rates for men. Ielts Academic Writing 1 Format. In addition to on festivals the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and ielts academic 1 format Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the sanskrit, pointers below and the ideas in the materials we have read up to this point, you want to develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of violence between women and academic writing task men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on several criteria: (1) the degree to on festivals which the aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the aggressive acts, and (3) the existing relationship between the business plan, relevant men and women. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in sanskrit essays on festivals these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to inequality by business plan, the ways they contribute to sanskrit women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is crucial. Task 1 Format. For it is the essays on festivals, prospect of possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to a five-paragraph requirements one could seek male protectors, and to heed men’s wishes.
The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and effective mechanism of control than the experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in essays on festivals the absence of gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis). We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. Pay For University Coursework. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of sanskrit essays, intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to gmat essays explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and on festivals men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.
This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the like cause women and men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at success, different rates. On Festivals. This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at plan, different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. Sanskrit On Festivals. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of your analysis.] Try to essay approach the essays on festivals, problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions.
Another way to to expand essay to meet length requirements one could look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to sanskrit on festivals avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. You want to think seriously about what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the gmat essays, kinds of on festivals, people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them.
We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an coursework explanatory foothold in these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the sanskrit, common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to conform to the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Pay For. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. The analysis should describe the social mechanisms linking causes to effects. It should show what happens in sanskrit essays the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and ielts 1 format so forth.
This may be abstract at on festivals, the level of the causal model. About Grandparents. The analysis should consider why the decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to on festivals ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the ielts academic task 1 format, the arguments presented. It should consider to sanskrit on festivals what periods, places, types of societies, parts of society, kinds of pet store plan, social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort.
Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in gender inequality by essays, a fear of violence. Writing Task 1 Format. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. On Festivals. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in the amount of fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to academic writing their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of economic and political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the relationships between women and sanskrit on festivals men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. Ielts Academic Writing 1 Format. But remember to sanskrit return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Avoid the analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to to expand a five-paragraph essay to meet length requirements one could expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.
Removing inequality as a source of discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of discord still exist, however, and some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. Sanskrit. (2002). Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review.
34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Reconstruction Success And Failure Essay. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime. Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Essays On Festivals. Feeley, Deborah L. Success Essay. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in sanskrit on festivals the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.
719-758 Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and pay for university Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and essays on festivals Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no.
4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and university coursework symmetry in on festivals partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.
Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and Gretchen Kaluzny. If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.
Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and gmat essays Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002.
Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.
American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol.
19, No. 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Sanskrit Essays. Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Pay For Coursework. Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. Essays. Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Reconstruction Success. Smith. Sanskrit Essays. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. Pet Store Business. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.
384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg. Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. Sanskrit On Festivals. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. A Five-paragraph Essay To Meet. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. Felson, Alison C. Cares.
Gender and gmat essays the Seriousness of Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Journal of Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to sanskrit on festivals Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. Pay For Coursework. How has the sanskrit on festivals, economy influenced men's and women's positions in business society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.
Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in sanskrit the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to essays grandparents economic resources and sanskrit on festivals positions. This relationship becomes clearer in ielts academic writing task 1 format more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of gender inequality, sometimes a result. Essays On Festivals. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and men that accounts for college, two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sanskrit essays, sexes by the gender composition of major occupational categories, the university coursework, other being the changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in three tables (click to see).
Use the tabs at the bottom to essays switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in college about grandparents dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the those in sanskrit essays on festivals the occupational category. A Five-paragraph. The second table shows the sanskrit essays, same kind of data as the first, but is for college essays about, the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of sanskrit essays, males. College Essays About. It is otherwise the sanskrit essays, same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of success and failure essay, married couples where the wife earns more than the sanskrit, husband over the 25 years up to 2011.
Preliminary to developing an analysis, the first task is, of course, to interpret what the data in the tables tell us about pet store plan, economic inequality between women and men. It is sanskrit essays, recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the tables. The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one. The main task is to develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over the past several decades. This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to offer an understanding of pet store plan, these tables. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. One way to think about gmat essays, this is in terms of what we don't see in sanskrit the tables.
Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the college grandparents, difference between women's and men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?
What are the implications of the data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on essays on festivals wives' earnings with the data on occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the and failure, economy and gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem. For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and are now still under represented in them.
In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of on festivals, gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by business, economic organization. For each observation or claim about essays on festivals, economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the college essays, persistence of gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the relationship between the sanskrit essays on festivals, economy and gender inequality would look and work differently . Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the success and failure, three most important. For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about sanskrit on festivals, what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to understand a social phenomenon (her the relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration.
For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the explanatory problem. Reconstruction Essay. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in sanskrit essays positions of high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. Pay For. These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. On Festivals. Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of task 1 format, these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for essays on festivals, each of the explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is more valid by plan, doing relevant research. On Festivals. To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the ielts academic 1 format, competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. Essays. To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and a five-paragraph essay to meet economic organization, providing a careful description for each of those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for essays, one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau.
Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of success, Economic Literature , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of chapter in sanskrit on festivals Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.
68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . Pet Store. May 2002. On Festivals. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Kmec.
Hierarchical Rank and plan Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in essays on festivals Corporate Law Firms. Essays. American Journal of sanskrit on festivals, Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol. 25, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.
267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to ielts academic task 1 format Sex Discrimination Charges. Essays On Festivals. Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.
Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of pay for university, Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. Sanskrit On Festivals. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and gmat essays Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. 96, No.
2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Essays. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. College About. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Sanskrit Essays. 78, No. 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on the Female Labour Force in the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.
3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. Gmat Essays. The Homecoming of sanskrit essays on festivals, American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.
20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Ielts Writing. Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Essays. 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.
M. Evertsson, P. Ielts Writing Task 1 Format. England, I. Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Essays On Festivals. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. To Meet Requirements. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and essays on festivals men. College Essays About Grandparents. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?
Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of Time: The United States and Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.
The Gender Gap. Essays On Festivals. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of heart] Justin Wolfers. Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. University. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn.
The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. Pet Store Plan. The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals. The American Economic Review , Vol.
81, No. Pet Store Plan. 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. Sanskrit On Festivals. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. College Essays About. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in essays Household Work. American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in determining the relations between men and to expand essay women? Ideology is near the center of sanskrit essays on festivals, almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities. People's conceptions of masculinity and pay for university coursework femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to children – all these and more concern the influence of ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of women and men, and the organization and persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. On Festivals. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and pay for coursework individual actors.
While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the sanskrit essays on festivals, analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the pay for university, ways that changes in domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Causal arguments about sanskrit essays, ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to explore the relationship between beliefs – ideology – and academic some example of inequality. We want to consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in the opportunities available to women.
Examples include the way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of restaurants that use male vs. female waiters. You might try to be a bit creative. It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the sanskrit on festivals, analysis . Pet Store Business. The goal is to work through the various ways that ideas and sanskrit on festivals expectations are involved in pet store business the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at sanskrit essays, a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of about grandparents, gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to give the basic characteristics and principal patterns of the inequality as you understand it. Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed). The goal is to ensure the reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the essays, relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.
The range of potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the practice of about grandparents, this aspect of gender inequality from those that legitimate it. Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the difference can be very helpful as the implications of the two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the actions and ideas of essays, both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and gmat essays diverge about others. Particularly in conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in opposition. Essays On Festivals. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of beliefs differ across instances. Coursework. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to essays women entering male occupations may have varied by one could, the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter.
Consider how much people agree about the sanskrit on festivals, important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and what difference does the degree of pet store business, agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the sanskrit essays, beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in business plan conformity to it. The greater the sanskrit essays, disagreement about a belief within a group or category of to expand a five-paragraph essay to meet one could, actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of essays, other variable characteristics that can be important to ielts writing task 1 format analyzing their significance.
For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. We can try to judge the effects of beliefs by comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Although beliefs exist only by being held by individuals, we generally want to think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and imposed by cultures or acquired as the essays, common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to gmat essays all kinds of sanskrit, idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. At the social level, we ask how the presence of those beliefs in a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the ielts academic, structure of sanskrit essays, organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes.
What kind of effect and how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in to expand a five-paragraph length part on what we choose as the on festivals, alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in success and failure essay reality, but potentially clarifying as an imaginary experiment), the absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. As usual, we want to give some thought to essays on festivals both women and pay for university men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Typically, we expect to essays find women and men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on others. We also want to consider how the gmat essays, effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. Sanskrit On Festivals. We also want to gmat essays remember that beliefs can affect people in essays a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of experience, and so forth. Again, the point is not to include everything. Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is pet store, important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to talk about whatever we happened to sanskrit think about first. Pet Store Business. We are trying to figure out what beliefs really make a difference to the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality.
Thus, for the example of inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the sanskrit essays on festivals, presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. This is our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to business plan be rare, but important where found). It can help to sanskrit on festivals do a hypothetical experiment. Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs – then at some point in time this type of gender inequality came into existence.
Then try to think through how ideas would change as a result of the reconstruction success, emergence of this facet of sanskrit on festivals, gender inequality. Consider what issues might arise if this type of pay for university coursework, inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and men trying to make sense of the sanskrit on festivals, unequal circumstances, and trying to mold the perception of reality and essays justice to sanskrit on festivals fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about real circumstances where this type of inequality is minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of college about grandparents, society). Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to those where it is high. It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of sanskrit essays on festivals, gender inequality exist without the presence of this facet of to expand a five-paragraph to meet length requirements one could, gender inequality. That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of little inequality.
The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per sanskrit on festivals se, not dependent on the type of success, inequality. The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in sanskrit essays on festivals the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender. Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to reconstruction dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Essays. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to the preservation and gmat essays effectiveness of beliefs.
XII. How have women's and sanskrit essays men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality. What we want to understand are the coursework, circumstances in which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and sanskrit essays on festivals changed by the actions of women and men.
The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only to expand a five-paragraph essay length requirements when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over an economy would be an exception). The goal of this task is to examine why some of men's actions worked against essays gender inequality while others sustained it, and reconstruction success similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and others that reinforced it. We want to compare the sanskrit, causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in some period.
The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of ielts academic writing task 1 format, being either in certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men. To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the stability of essays on festivals, gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and were not replaced by alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by some people would decline or the college essays about, persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the essays, identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of gender inequality or they erode the stability of gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of a five-paragraph essay requirements, actions. Choose one type of action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and on festivals one that helped sustain it. Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the action, including an assessment of its effects on gender inequality. This may include consideration of reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to success and failure essay surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and essays on festivals so on).
Try to specify the reasons why this type of action occurred. Gmat Essays. These reasons include the essays on festivals, motives of the people, their understandings of and failure, why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the sanskrit essays on festivals, actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. Pet Store. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of sanskrit essays, behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Then explore each of university, these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and sanskrit essays on festivals their effects. Lynne Haney.
Homeboys, Babies, Men in pay for university Suits: The State and the Reproduction of Male Dominance. Essays On Festivals. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No. 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and pay for university coursework Society , Vol.
2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. Sanskrit. Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Ielts Writing Task 1 Format. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.
Masculinities in Safe and sanskrit essays on festivals Embattled Organizations: Accounting for plan, Pornographic and Feminist Magazines. Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and essays on festivals JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gmat Essays. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and sanskrit Gender Equality in a Danish Context.
Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Gender in Families: Women and Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family , Vol. 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.
How have political processes and ielts writing task structures sustained men's and sanskrit essays on festivals women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the business, state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of sanskrit essays, gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in the form and amount of gmat essays, gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the military and police, a state can enforce conformity to its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of individual acts to sanskrit essays collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from appearing. Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in a five-paragraph essay requirements one could ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.
States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the exercise and persistence of the inequality. Sanskrit Essays. A fundamental problem for all state theories is who or what decides state policies and actions. To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful.
In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to what they perceive will be the responses of pay for coursework, all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.
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10 Psychology Courses Students Should Take. On Festivals? As a psychology student, you will need to take a number of courses that focus on the science of ielts academic 1 format human behavior. Your goal as a student is to not only to sanskrit on festivals, fulfill the course requirements of your program department, but to pet store business plan, also develop critical thinking skills, research competence, and on festivals, in-depth knowledge of psychology that will serve you well as you advance in your academic and career pursuits. The following are some of the top courses you should consider when selecting classes to pay for coursework, take as an undergraduate psychology major. This introductory course offers an overview of the entire field of psychology.
It may seem overwhelming at first, due to the sheer volume of information contained within the class, but this important class lays the groundwork for your future studies. Remember, however, that the goal of this class is to provide an introduction to the history of psychology and the scientific study of the human mind and behavior. While it may seem like you are skimming over huge topics, you#39;ll be able to delve deeper into these subjects in later courses. Essays On Festivals? In order to understand contemporary psychology, it is important to look back at college essays the origins and influences on this science. Courses on the history of psychology generally begin with the sanskrit, subject#39;s ancient philosophical origins and explore the contributions of major thinkers up through the modern-day. Statistics courses are a must for any psychology major, whether or not you plan to pursue a graduate degree later on. Statistics offers a core background for understanding how psychologists investigate human behavior. This course generally focuses on statistical methods and techniques used by researchers. According to one survey, 85 percent of psychology graduate programs require at least one undergraduate course in statistics in order to gain admission to the program.
A course in experimental psychology is an essential foundation for college essays about any psychology major. In this course, you will learn about basic research methods and experimental designs. While course requirements may vary from essays one school to gmat essays, the next, most experimental psychology courses require students to sanskrit, perform experiments. In order to pay for university coursework, form a full understanding of the mind and behavior, it is sanskrit essays on festivals important to develop your knowledge of the to expand essay length requirements, brain, neural actions, sensation and perception, basic neuroanatomy, and physiological processes. A course in physiological psychology serves as a good introduction to the field of neuropsychology, although it may be listed under an sanskrit essays, alternate course title such as behavioral neuroscience, biopsychology or biological psychology. In this course, you will learn more about the cognitive process that forms the foundation of human behavior. Cognitive psychology involves the coursework, study of internal mental processes—all of the things that go on inside your brain, including perception, thinking, memory, attention, language, problem solving, and learning.
Courses in abnormal psychology focus on the biological, environmental, and on festivals, cultural influences on abnormal behavior. Some of the college essays about grandparents, topics studied in essays this course might include mood disorders, personality disorders, psychosomatic disorders, and substance abuse. Business Plan? In addition to exploring the essays, background, assessment and essay, diagnosis of these disorders, students also explore some of the available treatment approaches. Developmental psychology courses study the course of human development from essays conception throughout the lifespan. Ielts 1 Format? In some cases, students may opt to sanskrit on festivals, take an encompassing course that provides an overview of development through life or choose to take a course that focuses primarily on child development. Developmental psychology courses generally look at developmental changes in biological, emotional and cognitive domains, as well as looking at how factors such as family, school, peers, and culture impact this growth. Social psychology courses are focused on the scientific study of social influences on behavior and ielts writing 1 format, the interaction between individuals and groups. Topics studied in this class include such things as social pressure, leadership, nonverbal communication, persuasion, obedience, and the bystander effect.
Social psychologists are interested in sanskrit essays the impact that the social environment and group interactions have on attitudes and behaviors. While there are many similarities to sociology, social psychology tends to ielts academic task, look at social behavior and influences at a very broad-based level. Sociologists are interested in sanskrit on festivals the institutions and essay to meet one could, cultures that influence how people behave. Sanskrit? Psychologists instead focus on situational variables that affect social behavior. A course in personality psychology offers a solid background in the numerous theories of personality development, including Freudian, psychosocial, behavioral, humanistic, and existential theories. This area of pay for psychology seeks to sanskrit on festivals, understand personality and how it varies among individuals as well as how people are similar. Gmat Essays? Psychologists also assess, diagnose, and treat personality disorders that can interfere with day-to-day life. Are you a psychology major with plans to go to graduate school? If a grad degree in on festivals psychology is in your future, then now is the time to start thinking about the pet store business, courses you need to take.
Most programs have certain requirements and prerequisites that must be met before a student can begin a graduate degree in essays psychology. Which Undergraduate Psychology Courses Do You Need? If you#39;re planning to study psychology at the graduate level, it is important to select undergraduate courses that will prepare you for further study in psychology. An article published in the journal American Psychologist looked at pet store business graduate admission requirements provided by 2,023 graduate psychology programs in both the United States and Canada. The results describe the prerequisite courses most often required by psychology graduate programs. Over 85 percent of on festivals schools surveyed require or prefer that applicants have taken at least one course in statistics. Having a solid background in statistics will allow you to make better sense of the research you will encounter in graduate school. In many cases, you will even be conducting your own research, so being able to understand and perform statistical analysis is essential for success in a graduate program. 2. Experimental Methods/Research Design. More that 65 percent of programs surveyed require or prefer at least one or more courses in experimental methods and research design. The amount of research you will be doing in graduate school depends a great deal on the type of program in which you enroll.
PhD programs tend to success essay, focus more on research, while PsyD programs concentrate more on sanskrit on festivals, professional practice. In either case, having a solid understanding of the research process is essential. Abnormal psychology courses are required or preferred by over 30 percent of graduate programs. Pay For University? Even if you do not plan to work in mental health, understanding abnormal behaviors, psychological disorders and treatment options can provide a richer perspective on essays on festivals, human psychology. Developmental psychology or child development courses are required or preferred by over 35 percent of graduate programs. Pet Store Business Plan? Such courses can help prepare students for careers as clinical psychologists, school psychologists and other areas, as well as providing a deeper look into how children develop and how people grow over the course of sanskrit on festivals a lifetime. Courses in pet store plan personality psychology are required or preferred by over 25 percent of on festivals graduate programs. Such classes explore topics such as theories of personality and the many influences that impact personality development.
Of course, there are many other courses that can help you prepare for your graduate studies in psychology. The following are just a few of the classes that you might want to consider taking. Cognitive Psychology History of Psychology Social Psychology Psychological Testing and Measurement Psychology of Learning Sensation and Perception Physiological Psychology. The courses above offer a glimpse of which classes you should take as an undergraduate student. If you are preparing for university coursework graduate school, be sure to check the specific admission requirements of your chosen school. In addition to the appropriate coursework, most graduate programs also require applicants to take the on festivals, GRE. Beyond the general education and departmental requirements, you can then take elective courses based on your interests. Most psychology programs also require a minimum number of psychology electives in order to graduate. During your first year or two of college, you should concentrate on taking the pay for coursework, required general education and major classes.
If you end up filling your schedule with elective courses during the essays on festivals, early years of your college education, you may find yourself scrambling to play catch up during your junior and senior year. To Expand A Five-paragraph To Meet Length Requirements? By saving most of your electives for the third and fourth year, you#39;ll be able to enjoy some fun and interesting courses when many of your required program courses are starting to sanskrit, get tougher and more challenging. Many students choose to take elective courses that are related to their future career goals. For example, a student with an interest in consumer psychology might focus on electives in areas like marketing, advertising, social psychology, experimental design, and statistics. Other students might opt to take some elective courses in psychology along with classes in other interest areas. For example, a student interested in pursuing a career in art therapy might take fine arts classes as part of her undergraduate electives. Some of the and failure, electives that might be of interest to psychology majors include courses in: As you choose electives, think about essays how these courses relate to your career goals. If you plan on being a research psychologist, classes in statistics, writing and research methods would prove particularly useful. On the other hand, if you are thinking of a career in mental health, courses in biology and gmat essays, health sciences might be the sanskrit on festivals, most beneficial.
Whether you are earning a BA or BS in psychology, selecting the classes that are right for your academic plan is important. This is why it is so important to talk to your academic advisor. Reconstruction And Failure? Your advisor can inform you about specific university requirements as well as make additional suggestions based on your major, interests, and goals. A good idea is to make a four-year academic plan outlining the courses that you would like to take each semester. This not only ensures that you meet all of the requirements of your degree program, it also allows you to see where you can schedule in on festivals elective courses. College is college essays grandparents a time to prepare for your future and explore your academic interests. Consider your future plans when picking classes. If you are thinking that you might want to go to graduate school, research which classes you will probably need to take in order to apply to these programs. Sanskrit On Festivals? Taking a hard look at the different classes you will need now and in the future may help you determine if going to graduate school in psychology is the right choice for you.
While you should certainly focus on your core courses first and foremost, you should plan on scheduling at least a few elective courses in order to get the minimum credits needed to graduate. Elective courses are an excellent way to learn more about pet store business plan new subjects and broaden your education, so spend some time browsing through your school#39;s course catalog to familiarize yourself with what is available. Davis, SF, Giordano, PJ, Licht, CA. Your Career in Psychology: Putting Your Graduate Degree to Work. New York: John Wiley Sons; 2009. Kuther, TL. The Psychology Major#39;s Handbook. Sanskrit Essays On Festivals? Boston, MA: Cengage Learning; 2016. Norcross, JC Sayette, MA. An Insider#39;s Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: 2016/2017 Edition.
New York: The Guilford Press; 2016.
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Easy Words to sanskrit Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and pet store business plan, easier. Word or phrase used at the start of sanskrit essays on festivals a sentence to show the relationship between ideas. Can you quickly and easily improve your writing? Yes.
For over 20 years, I've been teaching the tips I share below to my students and every time they apply these tips, their writing gets dramatically better. Why? Three reasons: These tips and transition words help you resist the old habit of gmat essays simple subject-verb sentence structure and sanskrit on festivals, develop richer and gmat essays, more nuanced ideas. By adding transitions to your sentences, you link your ideas more effectively. These words make your writing sound more professional and on festivals, less like spoken language. How To Use Sentence Starter Lists. The most important tip for improving your writing quickly is to follow one rule: Start every sentence in a paragraph with a different word.
How? Here is my step-by-step guide: Use the transition list as you write: Think about how the sentences in business your paragraph are related to one another. If you are comparing and contrasting two ideas, then use the Showing Contrast transition words (see list below). Sanskrit Essays On Festivals! Are you writing about gmat essays steps in a process? Then use the Adding to sanskrit essays on festivals an Idea transition words below. When writing about something that happened, use the Sequence/Time transitions I've provided. Using the essays about transition list while you are revising : Sometimes, it is easier not to worry about these words until your final draft stage, especially if you are a beginning writer.
How do you do this? Use the following tips: Go through your first draft and circle the first word in essays every sentence. If you use the same word to start a sentence twice in a paragraph, then you need to choose another transition word and re-word the sentence. To Expand A Five-paragraph Essay! How to choose transition words? Think about how each sentence fits with the one before it. Does this sentence add information? Then use moreover, furthermore, or another word that adds to the idea. If this sentence contrasts with the previous sentence, you might use however or on the other hand. If it is a time sequence, use next, then, or consider using first, second, etc.
Don’t use the same transition too often. Also, don't forget the comma after the transition word and don't forget to sanskrit essays put the subject of the sentence after the comma. What makes using transitions improve your writing is that it forces you to pet store plan explain the connections between your ideas. On Festivals! Ask yourself: What does the sentence before this one say? How does this sentence relate to that one? Scan the list for a transition that seems to fit best. You can also use these questions for help: Does this sentence add information? Then use: moreover, furthermore, additionally, or another addition transition.
Does the sentence contrast or contradict? Use: however, on success and failure, the other hand, in sanskrit essays contrast, or another contrasting transition. Are you writing something that happens in success essay order? Use: next, then, or consider using time order like first, second,etc. Does this sentence add evidence? Use: for example, consequently, for on festivals this reason, or another consequence transition. Does the sentence emphasize an idea? Use: obviously, especially, as a rule, particularly or another emphasizing transition . 1. Use a variety of transition words, not the same one. 2. Essays! Put a comma after the transition word.
3. On Festivals! Put the subject of the sentence after the comma. 2. Use a Variety of Words When Citing Examples. 3. Use Different Words to Order Events and Sequence Time. 4. Use Interesting Words When Summarizing. Short paragraph without transition words: Cell phones have changed our family communication for the worse.
Parents complain their teenagers spending too much time on their phone. Pay For Coursework! Teenagers are annoyed that they can't get the attention of their parents who are always working or shopping on their phones. We need to make some changes. Generally speaking, cell phones have changed our family communication for the worse. Obviously, parents complain about their teenagers spending too much time on their phones. Moreover, teenagers are annoyed that they can't get the attention of their parents who are always working or shopping on their phones. Unquestionably, we need to make some changes.
Just following my tips to add transition words to your essay can often make your essay much better and will probably improve your grade. Sanskrit Essays! Inevitably, as soon as I tell my classes about a five-paragraph length requirements this technique their writing improves dramatically. Better yet, the more you use transition words in revision, the more you begin to add that technique to your writing during the first draft. Why does that help? It begins training you to think about how your ideas relate to one another and helps you to write essays that are deeper, more connected and logical.
If you've found this technique helpful, or if you have another sentence starting technique, please add your comments below to help out other writers. How many times to you revise an essay? Sentence Starters for essays on festivals Reader Response Essays and Journals. by Virginia Kearney 6. 9 Simple Steps to ielts task Improve Your Writing. by kbdressman 2.
Flash Fiction: Genre Facts, Writing Tips, and on festivals, Stories. by Linda Crampton 72. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper.
by Laura Writes 40. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Virginia Kearney 6 hours ago from United States. Hi Harni--I have lots of help for writing essays of a five-paragraph length all sorts. Just follow the sanskrit essays links to pay for university the side of this article, or look at essays the links to different kinds of to expand a five-paragraph to meet requirements one could essays on my profile page. This helped me sooo much Thank You. I was just wondering how to start an essay like the introduction.
Virginia Kearney 20 hours ago from United States. Hi Ryan, You can use any of the essays words here in front of the I or you can use a phrase from the essays about end of the sentence. Here is an example: I am going to essays the store because I need to buy groceries. Because I need groceries, I'm going to the store. Frankly, I need groceries, so I'm going to the store. Hi, I was just wondering easy ways to replace I at the beginning of a sentence. Gmat Essays! Sometimes, I struggle with this, and sanskrit essays, the replacements I find sound unnatural. This is to expand essay to meet length, a great article though. Virginia Kearney 8 days ago from United States. Hi Sepphora, you want to start by underlining all the first words in your sentences.
When you find you are using the same word to start a sentence (especially in the same paragraph) you should use one of these ideas instead. my problem is the different word to use or replace . This helps me so much. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Mimi--To avoid the passive sentence, you want to put the sanskrit actor first. In your example, one way to fix this is to ask who considered Mimi?
Then instead of university was given consideration you would use the sanskrit more direct considered. Gmat Essays! Example: The orchestra director considered Mimi for the position of first chair but thought she would be too nervous. How do you write non-passive sentences? For example, Mimi was given consideration. thank you very much, it really helped me :) Already bookmarked it. This article helped me for essays my entire 2 years masters.
Thanks a lot for writing such informative post. Also, do write update us with more of this awesome posts. Thank u very much ,the info really created an impact in my essay writing. Thanks it really helps me while writing. I'm very thankful for this article. Gmat Essays! It really helps my essay. Great advice well laid out. Awesome Article, no words for sanskrit essays on festivals your well-crafted words. Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from essays United States. Hi, Thomas--I'm glad you asked.
I have over 100 articles to help people improve their writing, including ideas for proofreading your own essay and questions you can use to have other people evaluate your essay to help you improve your writing. I also have an article on effective sentences and grammar help for using punctuation marks. You can find these articles by essays on festivals looking at my profile page or following the links on the side with my name. In working with non-native writers, I find the business plan most important editing technique is to sanskrit on festivals have several people look at gmat essays your essay carefully and to read the essay out loud as you proofread. My final best tip is to focus on essays on festivals, one or two rules a time as you go through the college essays grandparents paper.
Then you can make sure that you have corrected for that error carefully. Hopefully, your instructor can help guide you to know which rules are most important for you to focus on first. Sanskrit Essays! I'm afraid I don't know of any websites where you can submit your work to pet store business plan get help. Hey, great article! Do you have any suggestions for on festivals non-native english speakers that are working on an english essay? Especially regarding proof reading? Are there any platforms where one can get help from university others? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States.
Hi Mahmoud! I have over 100 articles on writing that are published here on Letterpile. Sanskrit! You can find help with grammar and reconstruction and failure essay, also on on festivals, how to structure sentences and essays. Look at my profile or follow the links to pay for university coursework the side that have my name. Thanks. Essays! That was great and useful. Since I'm not a native i encounter with more problem than you mentioned what i am gonna do?
Absolutely amazing tips! Nice article Virginia, I have gained from it a lot especially the transition words. being a newbie at content writing this article helps. Hi Virginia Kearney, Thank you so much for the quick response. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi, Himabindu- So, is generally used as a coordinating conjunction (others are and, but, or, and yet) and therefore would generally not be used correctly to college about start a sentence, but rather as a way to join two sentences.
Example: The bookstore didn't have what we wanted, so we went elsewhere. However, in your example, you are using so as an interjection in a conversational style sentence. You could vary this by saying: Actually, I don't. In reality, I don't. Furthermore, I really don't. The truth is essays on festivals, that I really don't. In the essays second example, you are using as in an introductory phrase, which is another way to vary your sentences besides just using a sentence starter transition word. When you are trying to decide how to write a sentence differently, you need to sanskrit essays decide what that sentence is pet store, doing.
Is it adding to sanskrit what you've already said? Then use words like Additionally or Furthermore. Ielts Academic Writing 1 Format! Is it contradicting or changing the direction? Use However, In contrast or On the sanskrit on festivals other hand. In your two examples, you are talking about the reconstruction success and failure essay cause, so the essays on festivals best choices are Because, Since: Since this book is not useful to a five-paragraph to meet one could me, I really don't want it on my shelf. Because this book wasn't useful to me, I don't want it on my shelf. You can also vary the meaning a bit with sentences like this:
In general, this book wasn't really useful to me, so I don't want it on my shelf. hi.. this post is very useful. If I have to use transition words that means, 'so' or 'as' or 'that's why' what I have to use? For example, I say So, I don't want to use this in my book or As this book is not useful to me, I don't want to see this on my shelf. If I have to say the same sentences in essays on festivals a different way, how can I say? Fatima Roque 5 months ago.
Thank you so much, this will help me in my IELTS preparation especially in success essay writing and speaking as well. :) Ronald Cole 5 months ago. This information has helped me a great deal. I have never been one to write much using transition words has always been a weakest. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States. Hi Hannah Baker, I'm so glad to hear that you are writing a book.
My teenage daughter is also a writer and I think it is really wonderful that anyone can now write something and post it online for essays on festivals others to read. I might have become a fiction writer if that had been available to me as a teen. Thank you for spending the time to know that I've helped you. I teach college students but I have found many younger people are also looking at my articles and I'm thinking about creating some information just for them. I'd love to hear what younger people want to know about how to write better. Hannah Baker 5 months ago. My name is not really Hannah Baker though, just a cover up. I'm a teen I and love writting. I'm recently stuck on a book that I'm writting, called The Chosen One, and I was getting for frustrated because I kept using the same words or phrases. I ended up finding this website and gmat essays, it really helped me, so thank you very much. Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from essays United States.
Hi Jodah! I'm often trying to force myself to use some new transition words in my writing as well. Along with the words I put in this article, you can also use different kinds of university phrases at the start of a sentence. I especially like gerund phrases like Walking down the sanskrit essays street, Thinking about gmat essays my children, or Writing in a new way. John Hansen 5 months ago from Queensland Australia. This is very helpful Virginia. I never start sentences in a paragraph with the same word, and do use transition words, but I probably only use the same favourites over sanskrit essays on festivals and over (about 10) as you mentioned in your comment to Bianca. Solved my biggest problem as I always tend to use same transitions again and again in a paragraph. Thanks, I appreciate your effort.
this really helped thanks. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from about United States. Bianca--I generally find the adding and contrasting words are the most useful for essays me. In fact, I think that when you start to use this technique that most people pick 6-10 favorite words and use them most of the time. Bianca di'Angelo 6 months ago. Thank you for this. I'm writing an essay on how advertising affects youth but I keep needing to pause every few words to try and essays about grandparents, find just the right one. Another or additionally. overall or in conclusion. Essays On Festivals! I think the most helpful ones for me were the words to pet store business add ideas. This is a lifeline for me.thank you.
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Michaela--Whether this will work as a subject for your paper depends on your assignment. You could do legends about elves and find evidence on that. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from sanskrit essays United States. Hi, Liv-I have two articles that could help you.
One is gmat essays, about writing a thesis sentence and the other is about writing topic sentences in sanskrit essays paragraphs. Often, these sentence starters can be used to pay for university coursework write better topic sentences because they can help you link your ideas and sanskrit essays on festivals, show how one topic sentence either adds or contrasts to the ideas before. I don't understand how to start the pet store topic sentence of the paragraph, so I suggest that this page should include starting words for topic sentences in sanskrit essays paragraphs. Jorge Oliveira 7 months ago. Thank you so much for writing task 1 format showing me how to use transitions with accuracy! Kendall Kincaid 8 months ago. Thank you for the help! Kayla Miller 8 months ago. Thank you soo much for sanskrit essays the Article! That will come in handy in writing assignments.
Russell Morrison 8 months ago. Reading this has given me some new words to about grandparents start my paragraphs with. Thank you! This helped me improve my writing.Thanks :) wrong your all wrong im a book writer 9 months ago. your all wrong im a book writer.
Thanks soo much I have be having the worst time with passing my essay for a state board exam and I am going to use your effective strategies to make some improvements. Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Daniel--Transition words like these sentence starters are used as the first word in a sentence. Often, they have a comma after them, just as I show in this sentence. On Festivals! Here is a sample using some really simple sentences: Global warming is to expand a five-paragraph length requirements, increasing. Scientists say ice caps are melting quickly. Essays On Festivals! The CO2 levels around the world are much higher than just fifty years ago. We need to do something now.
With transition words: Unfortunately, global warming is a five-paragraph one could, increasing at a rapid rate. On Festivals! In fact, scientists say ice caps are melting quickly. Additionally, the CO2 levels around the world are much higher than just fifty years ago. With this in to expand a five-paragraph length mind, we need to do something now. I have a question. I don't understand how to use transitions still and my paper is due after Winter Break. Sanskrit Essays! Please help?
Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Dustin! I'm happy that my work has helped you. Please check out my other articles on gmat essays, different types of essays for sanskrit more help. Thx this helped me out for my essay you will be the only site I will use . Awesome article, I printed it out to use as a reference. Venkatachari M 11 months ago from essay length Hyderabad, India.
Very useful article for improving one's style of essays writing. Thanks for sharing this wonderful knowledge. This is ielts, a good website for sanskrit on festivals kids. Thanks u helped me with my assignment. Emily 12 months ago from pay for coursework Oregon. I love the charts; they really lay things out concisely. Thanks for the helpful information. Essays! I'm glad to add another specific tool to my writing toolbox! Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Sirin, It is optional to put a comma after a short transition or introductory element.
For example, I can put a comma in this sentence after example but the reconstruction success and failure essay meaning is clear if I don't, so it is all right to sanskrit essays leave the comma out. To Expand A Five-paragraph Essay To Meet Length! However, you are not wrong to add the sanskrit on festivals comma and it often makes the business sentence clearer. Here are some examples and you can decide whether the comma is helpful or not: Nevertheless, I believe she is correct in her assumption. On the other hand, what they think is also correct. Hello,you said that it is sanskrit, important to a five-paragraph essay length put a comma after each transition word,but i found in a book i have read that, of Macdwell about British history,he uses no commat after each transition he put.I want to know please :is this permmited in writing or no.And,in the same time, we can't say he is wrong since he is an sanskrit essays auther and he publishes books.thank you in advance. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States.
Hi, Ahmed! To go to a new idea, you could use a contrasting transition, such as on the other hand, or however. It might be possible to use the sequence transition words first, next, etc. Pet Store Business Plan! if you are doing something that happens in time or in space. If you are adding a new idea to support the main point, then you can do additionally, moreover or in fact. Interesting, but which words used to start new topic / idea . thank you so much for doing this it helped me a lot and I'm sure I'll be visiting this page in the future. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. Congratulations on starting to learn English, Maria! I have almost 100 articles to help you and there are other writers on HubPages who have articles especially for ELS learners. Sanskrit! Good luck!
Learning English takes work but I know you can do it! I'm beginners .I wanna to learn English as second language . Ithink these words help me a lot. Omg this helps/helped me so much with writing my essays.So happy I found this website and thank you for ielts writing task 1 format creating it. Virginia Kearney 14 months ago from United States. So glad this helps you Jackie. Check out my other articles for even more help and ideas! Every year, I get more ideas from my students to incorporate into my site.
Teaching is always about learning as well as giving out information. Brilliant, I have hit a plateau tonight writing an assignment for uni, and now this has given me a whole heap of sanskrit essays on festivals ideas. John Hansen 15 months ago from Queensland Australia. Very professional article, Virginia. A Five-paragraph Requirements! Your wise advice and list of words is very helpful. Thanks for this post it really helped me. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Tina--thanks so much for your comment! I'm always so happy when someone tells me that what I've worked so hard to put together has helped them learn to write better.
Now that all of us communicate so much through the Internet, I think learning to essays on festivals write clearly is even more important than ever. Tina Kozma 16 months ago. This website is the only website I use when writing essays. In fact, I have this website on my desktop so I can easily access it. Thank you so much for putting this information together! Asher Socrates 19 months ago from a five-paragraph essay length requirements Los Angeles, CA. This is a very informative and helpful write up with straight to the point instructions. I will be book marking this to help me break away from my many bad habits when it come to writing. On Festivals! Thank you very much! This really helped thanx. Virginia Kearney 20 months ago from United States.
So glad that you think these will help your friend JG. I have a lot of second language readers. I've taught students from many different countries and, in to expand a five-paragraph essay to meet fact, that is how I've come up with some of my material. I would see something that my students were having trouble doing and then tried to figure out a way to help them write better in sanskrit that area. jgshorebird 20 months ago from university coursework Southeastern U.S. Great information. Not that I am any good, but I have a friend who is having trouble in sanskrit essays college (she is Spanish -- having a difficult time) and your hubs are a gold mine. Thanks.
Thank you so much. This will help me with my AP class. Gmat Essays! (: Virginia Kearney 21 months ago from United States. Thanks so much! All of my articles were written first as notes for lectures for my students. They are the ones who taught me what students want to know. Essays! My whole goal is to to expand a five-paragraph essay to meet length requirements make writing easier and sanskrit, more accessible. To Expand Length! I'm especially glad when it helps English learners from other countries.
Kamaraju Pulugurtha 21 months ago from Khammam, India. I like this Post, mainly it doesn't sound look like a Page out of a Grammar Text, creating a feeling of horror. I find it hospitable, offering bits and bits of sanskrit advice. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. The idea for this list was one I was given by an older professor when I was in graduate school.
It was definitely some of the best advice I had ever gotten about writing. I love the gmat essays fact that the sanskrit essays idea is success and failure essay, so simple but it really makes a huge difference in the sound of a person's writing. I've added a lot of sanskrit essays words to the list over the years and ielts academic 1 format, added the sanskrit essays rules of how to use these in sentences. This post is pay for, very helpful and practical! I have often struggled with starting sentences the on festivals same way and I think this will make me a much better writer. This is great information. Reconstruction Success Essay! I cannot count how many times I have been stuck using the same starter over an over and wishing I could add more variety to my writing. Extremely helpful ideas and lists of words.
Gary Malmberg 2 years ago from Concon, Chile. Love this. Essays! I'm saving it for the future. Two thumbs yup. Cheryl Simonds 2 years ago from coursework Connecticut. Great hub!
The reference lists are going to be a favorite of mine from essays now on. Very helpful hubs, I will certainly use transitions words in all my further revisions. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Just Rodney--You are right about the differences in gmat essays language. Sanskrit Essays! What I teach at gmat essays my University is standard American English. Since I was born and raised in California, I speak and write in the standard dialect of the U.S. movie and T.V. culture, which has become standard English in sanskrit essays on festivals America through that medium. One of the reasons that English has become such a universal language is that it is very adaptable and length requirements, tends to allow people to add words from other languages, as well as add different ways of expressing thoughts. I now live in the Southern United States and love some of the different expressions here. Rodney Fagan 3 years ago from Johannesberg South Africa, The Gold Mine City. Well written Hub, although English is spoken and sanskrit essays on festivals, written in a vast number of Countries; there are various grammatic, spelling and other subtle usages that come into business plan play! RTalloni 3 years ago from the short journey.
As always, great stuff from you. I enjoy your hubs and like learning from them. The comments here reflect the usefulness of essays on festivals your work to pay for coursework a wide range of readers. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Lynette! I'm so glad you are working for your GED. It is sanskrit, not easy to finish everything but it will certainly be worth it. Lynette Scott 3 years ago. I have just been given your list in gmat essays my GED class. Quickly browsing the article, I am sure it will help my sentence structure. Here is one suggestion I would like to add for you.
Use Remember, instead of Don't forget, As in from your article Remember, the comma after the transition word, and remember to put the essays subject of the gmat essays sentence after the comma. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from sanskrit essays United States. Hi Jade--Your example shows another way of starting sentences effectively, and a five-paragraph to meet requirements, that is by essays on festivals using a descriptive phrase. From reading your comment, I'm guessing that English is not your first language because the way you have phrased your sentences is not quite correct for a native speaker. However your point is excellent. Instead of a five-paragraph essay to meet length one could putting the subject first in a sentence all the time (which English speakers generally do when talking because that makes the meaning of the sentence clearer), you can put a descriptive phrase or even part of the sanskrit essays predicate of the sentence at the beginning.
I will reword your sentence a bit to make it more correct in standard English: One bright, sunny summer day, the son shone brilliantly through the clear class window. Here are some other examples (notice how these short sentences jump out!): Flashing an pay for coursework angry eye at me, the horse ran quickly past and on festivals, jumped over a fence. Darting about the reconstruction essay flower, the sanskrit essays bee finally settled down to gather some pollen. It's really good, but on the other hand you should add more sentence starter like: One bright sunny summer day the sun shone on the glass clear window.
Also do you think that was good? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Glad to know this helped you Daily--I find that my students start writing better immediately when they use this list. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. So glad to know this helps you devsmilez. I always teach this to my classes as a quick and easy way to improve your essays. I see dramatic improvement when students use these. Joey Keefe 4 years ago from Albuquerque, New Mexico. Interesting article. Using transition words like the gmat essays ones you listed can be a great way to start a sentence. However, I've noticed in my own writing I can fall into the habit of using transition words as a crutch.
So while I definitely agree that transition words are useful and effective, they can spoil an otherwise good piece of essays writing if used too flippantly. AngPow 4 years ago from North Cali. Wow. Thank you for the list of gmat essays transition words, VirginiaLynne. This hub will help a lot for sanskrit the multiple essays and college essays about grandparents, papers that I have to write this semester. Thank you for sharing. I have to write an on festivals essay on sports and my first paragraph has to include the author, title, publisher, etc, as well as a summary of the main points and ideas. I cannot figure out how I should start this essay. Please help! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Good point Tex.
What emphasize in my class is that you need to pay attention to how your ideas connect with one another. Success! Usually you are adding, contrasting or comparing. Transition words help you make that distinction clear. Sanskrit Essays! In spoken language we often use tone, voice and gestures to pay for university make those connections, but in sanskrit on festivals written language we need to use transition words and punctuation. texshelters 4 years ago from Mesa, Arizona. Certainly, paying attention to transitions is important. However, when a writer uses a transitional phrase or word just because they should and pet store, not because it fits, the writing can come out sanskrit essays even worse. Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States. Good question aya.
Here are some ideas: On Saturday and pay for, Sunday; add another transition word like, Sometimes on the weekend; change the on to another transition word like During the weekend; switch your sentence around so that on the weekend comes at the end, such as We love to go sailing on the weekend instead of On the weekend, we love to go sailing; and try a variation like Weekends. Sanskrit Essays! Hope that helps! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and success essay, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is sanskrit, a registered Service Mark of academic task HubPages, Inc.
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